Skip to main content

LLVM-based compiler for LightGBM models

Project description

lleaves 🍃

CI Documentation Status Downloads

A LLVM-based compiler for LightGBM decision trees.

lleaves converts trained LightGBM models to optimized machine code, speeding-up prediction by ≥10x.


lgbm_model = lightgbm.Booster(model_file="NYC_taxi/model.txt")
%timeit lgbm_model.predict(df)
# 12.77s

llvm_model = lleaves.Model(model_file="NYC_taxi/model.txt")
%timeit llvm_model.predict(df)
# 0.90s 

Why lleaves?

  • Speed: Both low-latency single-row prediction and high-throughput batch-prediction.
  • Drop-in replacement: The interface of lleaves.Model is a subset of LightGBM.Booster.
  • Dependencies: llvmlite and numpy. LLVM comes statically linked.


conda install -c conda-forge lleaves or pip install lleaves (Linux and MacOS only).


Ran on a dedicated Intel i7-4770 Haswell, 4 cores. Stated runtime is the minimum over 20.000 runs.

Dataset: NYC-taxi

mostly numerical features. |batchsize | 1 | 10| 100 | |---|---:|---:|---:| |LightGBM | 52.31μs | 84.46μs | 441.15μs | |ONNX Runtime| 11.00μs | 36.74μs | 190.87μs | |Treelite | 28.03μs | 40.81μs | 94.14μs | |lleaves | 9.61μs | 14.06μs | 31.88μs |

Dataset: MTPL2

mix of categorical and numerical features. |batchsize | 10,000 | 100,000 | 678,000 | |---|---:|---:|---:| |LightGBM | 95.14ms | 992.47ms | 7034.65ms | |ONNX Runtime | 38.83ms | 381.40ms | 2849.42ms | |Treelite | 38.15ms | 414.15ms | 2854.10ms | |lleaves | 5.90ms | 56.96ms | 388.88ms |

Advanced usage

To avoid any Python overhead during prediction you can link directly against the generated binary. See benchmarks/c_bench/ for an example of how to do this. The function signature can change between major versions.


conda env create
conda activate lleaves
pip install -e .
pre-commit install

Project details

Download files

Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.

Files for lleaves, version 0.2.4
Filename, size File type Python version Upload date Hashes
Filename, size lleaves-0.2.4.tar.gz (1.5 MB) File type Source Python version None Upload date Hashes View
Filename, size lleaves-0.2.4-py3-none-any.whl (20.7 kB) File type Wheel Python version py3 Upload date Hashes View

Supported by

AWS AWS Cloud computing Datadog Datadog Monitoring Facebook / Instagram Facebook / Instagram PSF Sponsor Fastly Fastly CDN Google Google Object Storage and Download Analytics Huawei Huawei PSF Sponsor Microsoft Microsoft PSF Sponsor NVIDIA NVIDIA PSF Sponsor Pingdom Pingdom Monitoring Salesforce Salesforce PSF Sponsor Sentry Sentry Error logging StatusPage StatusPage Status page