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Luiti = Luigi + time

Project description

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As [Luigi]('s homepage said, it's "a
Python module that helps you build complex pipelines of batch jobs. It
handles dependency resolution, workflow management, visualization etc.
It also comes with Hadoop support built in."

Luiti is built on top of Luigi, separates all your tasks into **multiple
packages**, and forces **one task per one Python file**. Luiti task classes
can be managed by the `luiti` command, supported operations are ls, new,
generate, info, clean, run, and webui.

Luiti is born to build **a layered database warehouse**, corresponding to
the different packages we just mentioned. A data warehouse consists
of synced data sources, fact tables, dimension tables, regular or
temporary business reports.

The essence of batching processing system is to separate a large task
into small tasks, and the essence of business report is that a daily
report or a weekly report is requried, so here comes TaskDay, TaskWeek,
and more. Task classes also have a Hadoop version, such as TaskDayHadoop,
TaskWeekHadoop, and so on.

You can pass any parameters into Luigi's tasks, but Luiti recommend you
to pass only `date_value` parameter. So you can run Luiti tasks
periodically, e.g. hourly, daily, weekly, etc. **luiti = luigi + time**.

Document guide
1. [Intro](#luiti)
3. [Luiti command tool](#luiti-command-tool)
2. [Luiti WebUI screenshots](#luiti-webui-screenshots)
4. [Core concepts based on time management](#core-concepts-based-on-time-management)
5. [Built-in properties](#task-specification-and-built-in-properties-and-recommendation)
6. [Manage multiple projects in luiti](#manage-multiple-projects-in-luiti)
7. [A simple guide to Luigi](#a-simple-guide-to-luigi)
8. [A simple example in luiti](#a-simple-example-in-luiti)
9. [Installment and Development](#installment-and-develop-requirements)
10. [Task recommendation](#task-recommendation)
11. [Task decorators](#task-decorators)
12. [MapReduce related](#mapreduce-related)
13. [Extend luiti](#extend-luiti)
14. [FAQ](#faq)
15. [Run tests](#run-tests)
16. [Who uses Luiti?](#who-uses-luiti)

Keynote [Luiti - An Offline Task Management Framework](

Luiti command tool
After installed package, you can use `luiti` command tool that contained
in the package.

$ luiti
usage: luiti [-h] {ls,new,generate,info,clean,run,webui} ...

Luiti tasks manager.

optional arguments:
-h, --help show this help message and exit

valid subcommands

ls list all current luiti tasks.
new create a new luiti project.
generate generate a new luiti task python file.
info show a detailed task.
clean manage files that outputed by luiti tasks.
run run a luiti task.
webui start a luiti DAG visualiser.

Luiti WebUI screenshots
# or
luiti webui --project-dir your_main_luiti_package_path

Here's some screenshots from, just to give you an
idea of how luiti's multiple Python packages works.

1. Luiti WebUI list
![Luiti WebUI list](

2. Luiti WebUI show
![Luiti WebUI show](

3. Luiti Code show
![Luiti Code show](

Core concepts based on time management
### date type

#### Basic inheriting task classes:
0. TaskBase (luigi.Task)
1. TaskHour (TaskBase)
2. TaskDay (TaskBase)
3. TaskWeek (TaskBase)
4. TaskMonth (TaskBase)
5. TaskRange (TaskBase)

You can extend more date type by subclass `TaskBase`, and make sure the
date types are added in `TaskBase.DateTypes` too.

#### Hadoop ineriting task classes:
1. TaskDayHadoop (luigi.hadoop.HadoopExt, TaskDay)
2. TaskWeekHadoop (luigi.hadoop.HadoopExt, TaskWeek)
3. TaskRangeHadoop (luigi.hadoop.HadoopExt, TaskRange)

#### Other task classes:
1. RootTask (luigi.Task)
2. StaticFile (luigi.Task)
3. MongoImportTask (TaskBase) # export json file from hdfs to mongodb.

Task specification and built-in properties and recommendation
### Task naming conventions
1. One Task class per file.
2. Task class should be camel case ( e.g. `EnglishStudentAllExamWeek`), file name should be low case with underscore ( e.g. `` ).
3. Task files should be under the directory of `luiti_tasks`. luiti use this convertion to linking tasks inner and outer of pacakges.
4. Task class name should be ended with date type, e.g. Day, Week, etc. Please refer to `TaskBase.DateTypes`.

### Task builtin properties.
1. `date_value`. Required, even it's a Range type Task. This ensure that `output` will be written to a day directory.
2. `data_file`. The absolute output file path, it's a string format.
3. `data_dir`. The directory of the absolute output file path, it's a string format.
4. `root_dir`. The root path of this package. `data_file` and `data_dir` are all under it.
5. `output`. Basic Task's output class is LocalTarget, and Hadoop Task's output class is hdfs.HdfsTarget.
6. `date_str`. A datetime string, such as "20140901".
7. `date_type`. A string that generated from task class name, e.g. Day, Week, etc.
8. `date_value_by_type_in_last`. If current date type is Week, and it'll return the previous week's `date_value`.
8. `date_value_by_type_in_begin`. If current date type is Week, and it'll return Monday zero clock in the current week.
9. `date_value_by_type_in_end`. If current date type is Week, and it'll return Sunday 11:59:59 clock in the current week.
10. `pre_task_by_self`. Usually it returns previous task in the current date type. If reaches the time boundary of current date type, it returns RootTask.
11. `is_reach_the_edge`. It's semester at 17zuoye business.
12. `instances_by_date_range`. Class function, return all task intances list that belongs to current date range.
13. `task_class`. Return current task class.

Manage multiple projects in luiti
#### The directory structure of a specific project.

We recommend you to organize every project's directory structure as the
below form, and it means it's also a normal Python package, for example:

project_A --- project directory --- Python package install script
README.markdown --- project README
project_A/ --- Python package install directory
├── --- mark current directories on disk as a Python package directories
└── luiti_tasks --- a directory name which indicates it contains several luiti tasks
├── --- mark current directories on disk as a Python package directories
├── --- initialize luiti environment variables
├── --- an example luiti task
├── --- another example luiti task
└── templates --- some libraries

After installing `luiti`, you can run following command line to generate
a project like above.
luiti new --project-name project_A

If other luiti projects need to using this package, and you need to
install this package, to make sure luiti could find them in the
search path (`sys.path`) of Python modules.

#### How to link current Task to another Task that belongs to another pacakge?
Every luiti projects share the same structure, e.g.
`project_A/luiti_tasks/`. After config
`luigi.plug_packages("project_B", "project_C==0.0.2"])` in
``, you can use `@luigi.ref_tasks("ArtistStreamDay')` to
indicate current Task to find `ArtistStreamDay` Task in current package
`project_A`, or related `project_B`, `project_C` packages.

A simple guide to Luigi
Luigi's core concept is to force you to separte a big task into many small
tasks, and they're linked by **atomic** Input and Ouput. Luigi contains four
parts mainly:

1. **Output**. It must be implemented in `output` function, such as `LocalTarget` and `hdfs.HdfsTarget`.
2. **Input**. It must be implemented in `requires` function, and the
function is supposed to return some or None task instances.
3. **Parameters**. Parameters should be inherited from `luigi.Parameter`,
e.g. `DateParameter`, etc.
4. **Execute Logic**. Use `run` function if running at local, or `mapper` and `reducer`
if running on a distributed MapReduce YARN.

After finish the business logic implementation and test cases, You can
submit your task to the `luigid` background daemon. `luigid` will
process task dependencies automatically, this is done by checking
`output` is already `exists` (It's the Target class's function). And
luigi will guarantee that task instances are uniq in current
`luigid` background process by the task class name and parameters.

A simple example in luiti
#### An official example from luigi.
Code below is copied from

import luigi
from collections import defaultdict

class AggregateArtists(luigi.Task):
date_interval = luigi.DateIntervalParameter()

def output(self):
return luigi.LocalTarget("/data/artist_streams_%s.tsv" % self.date_interval)

def requires(self):
return [Streams(date) for date in self.date_interval]

def run(self):
artist_count = defaultdict(int)

for input in self.input():
with'r') as in_file:
for line in in_file:
timestamp, artist, track = line.strip().split()
artist_count[artist] += 1

with self.output().open('w') as out_file:
for artist, count in artist_count.iteritems():
print >> out_file, artist, count

#### The same example written in luiti.

* First file: `artist_project/luiti_tasks/`

from luiti import *

class ArtistStreamDay(StaticFile):

def filepath(self):
return TargetUtils.hdfs("/tmp/streams_%s.tsv" % self.date_str

* Second file: `artist_project/luiti_tasks/`

from luiti import *

class AggregateArtistsWeek(TaskWeek):

def requires(self):
return [self.ArtistStreamDay(d1) for d1 in self.days_in_week]

def output(self):
return TargetUtils.hdfs("/data/artist_streams_%s.tsv" % self.date_str

def run(self):
artist_count = defaultdict(int)

for file1 in self.input():
for line2 in TargetUtils.line_read(file1):
timestamp, artist, track = line.strip().split()
artist_count[artist] += 1

with self.output().open('w') as out_file:
for artist, count in artist_count.iteritems():
print >> out_file, artist, count

Optimizition notes:

1. luiti's task class is built in with `date_value` property, and converted
into `Arrow` data type.
2. In ArtistStreamDay, `date_str` is transformed from `date_value`, and
converted from a function into a instance property after the first call.
3. `@luigi.ref_tasks` bind ArtistStreamDay as AggregateArtistsWeek's
instance property, so we can use `self.ArtistStreamDay(d1)` form to
instantiate some task instances.
4. After AggregateArtistsWeek is inherited from `TaskWeek`, it'll has
`self.days_in_week` property automatically.
5. `TargetUtils.line_read` replaced original function that needs two
lines codes to complete the feature, and return a Generator directly.

#### Writing MapReduce in luiti
* MapReduce file: `artist_project/luiti_tasks/`

from luiti import *

class AggregateArtistsWeek(TaskWeekHadoop):

def requires(self):
return [self.ArtistStreamDay(d1) for d1 in self.days_in_week]

def output(self):
return TargetUtils.hdfs("/data/weeks/artist_streams_%s.tsv" % self.date_str

def mapper(self, line1):
timestamp, artist, track = line.strip().split()
yield artist, 1

def reducer(self, artist, counts):
yield artist, len(counts)

Yes, it's almost no difference to luigi, except the `self.days_in_week`
property and `@luigi.ref_tasks` decorator.

Installment and Develop requirements
#### Installment
pip install luiti

Or lastest source code

git clone
cd luiti
python install

#### Develop requirements
1. [Node.js]( & [bower](
2. pip requirements from
3. [tox]( & [nose](

Time library

The time library is [Arrow]( , every Task
instance's `date_value` property is a arrow.Arrow type.

luiti will convert date paramters into local time zone automatically. If
you want to customize time, please prefer to use
`ArrowParameter.get(*strs)` and `` to make sure you
use the local time zone.

Task recommendation
#### Cache
We highly recommend you to use `cached_property`, like
[werkzeug]( said, "A decorator that
converts a function into a lazy property. The function wrapped is called
the first time to retrieve the result and then that calculated result is
used the next time you access the value".

This function is heavily used in 17zuoye everyday, we use it to cache
lots of things, such as a big data dict.

class AnotherBussinessDay(TaskDayHadoop):

def requires(self):
return [task1, task2, ...]

def mapper(self, line1):
k1, v1 = process(line1)
yield k1, v1

def reducer(self, k1, vs1):
for v1 in vs1:
v2 = func2(v1, self.another_dict)
yield k1, v2

def another_dict(self):
# lots of cpu/io
return big_dict

#### Global utilities.
1. Basic utilities, such as os, re, json, defaultdict, etc.
2. Date processing utilities, they are arrow, ArrowParameter.
3. Cache utilities, `cached_property`.
4. Other utilities, such as IOUtils, DateUtils, TargetUtils, HDFSUtils, MRUtils, MathUtils,
CommandUtils, CompressUtils.

Task decorators
# 1. Bind related tasks lazily, and can be used as instance property directly.

# 2. Support multiple file output in MapReduce

# 3. Run MapReduce in local mode by only add one decorator.

# 4. Check current task' data source's date range is satisfied.

# 5. Check current task can be runned in current date range.
@luigi.check_runtime_range(hour_num=[4,5,6], weekday_num=[1])

# 6. Let Task Templates under [luigi.contrib]( to follow with Luiti's Task convertion.

class AnotherBussinessDay(TaskDayHadoop):

MapReduce related
#### Clean temporary file when a task fails.
When executing a MR job, luigi will write result to a file with
timestamp instantly. If the task successes, then rename to the name that
the task's original output file path. If the task fails, then YARN will
delete the temporary file automatically.

#### Read file in a Generator way.
1. Original way. `for line1 in TargetUtils.line_read(hdfs1)`, `line1` is an
unicode type.
2. Read by JSON. `for json1 in TargetUtils.json_read(hdfs1)`, `json1` is
a valid Python object.
3. Read in a K-V format. `for k1, v1 in TargetUtils.mr_read(hdfs1)`, `k1`
is an unicode type, and `v1` is a Python object.

#### HDFS file object
We recommend to use `TargetUtils.hdfs(path1)`. This function compacts
the MR file result data format that consists of "part-00000" file blocks.

#### MapReduce test cases

1. Add MapReduce input and output to `mrtest_input` and `mrtest_output`,
these mimic the MapReduce processing.
2. In your test file, use `@MrTestCase` to decorator your test class,
and add your task class to `mr_task_names` list.
3. (Optional) Add some config dict to `mrtest_attrs` to mimic properties
that generated in production mode.
4. Run your test cases!


from luiti import *

class BuyFruitDay(TaskDayHadoop):

def requries(self):

def output(self):

def mapper(self, line):
yield uid, fruit

def reducer(self, uid, fruits):
price = sum([self.price_dict[fruit] for fruit in fruits])
yield "", MRUtils.str_dump({"uid": uid, "price": price})

def price_dict(self):
result = dict()
for json1 in TargetUtils.json_read(a_fruit_price_list_file):
result[json1["name"]] = json1["price"]
return result

def mrtest_input(self):
return """
{"uid": 3, "fruit": "Apple"}
{"uid": 3, "fruit": "Apple"}
{"uid": 3, "fruit": "Banana"}

def mrtest_output(self):
return """
{"uid": 3, "price": 7}

def mrtest_attrs(self):
return {
"price_dict": {
"Apple": 3,
"Banana": 1,


`test file`

from luiti import MrTestCase

class TestMapReduce(unittest.TestCase):
mr_task_names = [

if __name__ == '__main__':

Extend luiti
Using `TaskBase`'s builtin `extend` class function to extend or overwrite
the default properties or functions, for example:

'property_1' : lambda self: "property_2",

`extend` class function compacts with `function`, `property`, `cached_property`,
or any other attributes at the same time。When you want to overwrite
`property` and `cached_property`, you just need a function value, and
`extend` will automatically converted into `property` and
`cached_property` type.

Q: How atomic file is supported?

A: As luigi's document mentioned that "Simple class that writes to a temp file and moves it on close()
Also cleans up the temp file if close is not invoked", so use the `self.input().open("r")` or
`self.output().open("w")` instead of `open("some_file", "w")`.

Q: Can luigi detect the interdependent tasks?

A: It's not question inside of luigi, but it's a question about [topological sorting](
as a general computer science topic. The task scheduler is implemented at `luigi/` .

Q: How to pass more parameters into luiti tasks?

A: You can create a key-value dict, `date_value` is the key, and your
customize parameters are the values.

If you have other unresolved questions, please feel free to ask
questions at [issues](

Run tests

# or
nosetests --with-coverage --cover-inclusive --cover-package=luiti
tox -e py27-cdh

Who uses Luiti?
* [17zuoye]( Luiti born at this company.

Please let us know if your company wants to be featured on this list!


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