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Compression using an optimized algorithm (lzhw) developed from Lempel-Ziv, Huffman and LZ-Welch techniques

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lzhw

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Compression library to compress big lists and/or pandas dataframes using an optimized algorithm (lzhw) developed from Lempel-Ziv, Huffman and LZ-Welch techniques.

Quick Start

pip install lzhw
import lzhw

sample_data = ["Sunny", "Sunny", "Overcast", "Rain", "Rain", "Rain", "Overcast", 
			   "Sunny", "Sunny", "Rain", "Sunny", "Overcast", "Overcast", "Rain", 
			   "Rain", "Rain", "Sunny", "Sunny", "Overcaste"]

compressed = lzhw.LZHW(sample_data)
## let's see how the compressed object looks like:
print(compressed)
# 1111101101010011111101101010011100000010

## its size
print(compressed.size())
# 32

## size of original
from sys import getsizeof
print(getsizeof(sample_data))
# 216

print(compressed.space_saving())
# space saving from original to compressed is 85%

## Let's decompress and check whether there is any information loss
decomp = compressed.decompress()
print(decomp == sample_data)
# True

As we saw, the LZHW class has saved 85% of the space used to store the original list without any loss. The class has also some useful helper methods as space_saving, size, and decompress() to revert back to original.

Another example with numeric data.

from random import sample, choices

numbers = choices(sample(range(0, 5), 5), k = 20)
comp_num = lzhw.LZHW(numbers)

print(getsizeof(numbers) > comp_num.size())
# True

print(numbers == list(map(int, comp_num.decompress()))) ## make it int again
# True

print(comp_num.space_saving())
# space saving from original to compressed is 88%

Let's look at how the compressed object is stored and how it looks like when printed: LZHW class has an attribute called compressed which is the integer of the encoded bitstring

print(comp_num.compressed) # how the compressed is saved (as integer of the bit string)
# 103596881534874

print(comp_num)
# 10111100011100010000111010100101101111110011010

We can also write the compressed data to files using save_to_file method, and read it back and decompress it using decompress_from_file function.

status = ["Good", "Bad", "Bad", "Bad", "Good", "Good", "Average", "Average", "Good",
          "Average", "Average", "Bad", "Average", "Good", "Bad", "Bad", "Good"]
comp_status = lzhw.LZHW(status)
comp_status.save_to_file("status.txt")
decomp_status = lzhw.decompress_from_file("status.txt")
print(status == decomp_status)
# True

Compressing DataFrames

lzhw doesn't work only on lists, it also compress pandas dataframes and save it into compressed files to decompress them later.

import pandas as pd

df = pd.DataFrame({"a": [1, 1, 2, 2, 1, 3, 4, 4],
                   "b": ["A", "A", "B", "B", "A", "C", "D", "D"]})
comp_df = lzhw.CompressedDF(df)

Let's check space saved by compression

comp_space = 0
for i in range(len(comp_df.compressed)):
	comp_space += comp_df.compressed[i].size()

print(comp_space, getsizeof(df))
# 56 712

## Test information loss
print(comp_df.compressed[0].decompress() == list(map(str, df.a)))
# True

Saving and Loading Compressed DataFrames

With lzhw we can save a data frame into a compressed file and then read it again using save_to_file method and decompress_df_from_file function.

## Save to file
comp_df.save_to_file("comp_df.txt")

## Load the file
original = lzhw.decompress_df_from_file("comp_df.txt")
print(original)
#   a  b
#0  1  A
#1  1  A
#2  2  B
#3  2  B
#4  1  A
#5  3  C
#6  4  D
#7  4  D

Compressing Bigger DataFrames

Let's try to compress a real-world dataframe german_credit.xlsx file. Original txt file is 219 KB on desk.

gc_original = pd.read_excel("examples/german_credit.xlsx")
comp_gc = lzhw.CompressedDF(gc_original)

## Compare sizes in Python:
comp_space = 0
for i in range(len(comp_gc.compressed)):
	comp_space += comp_gc.compressed[i].size()

print(comp_space, getsizeof(gc_original))
# 12932 548852

print(comp_gc.compressed[0].decompress() == list(map(str, gc_original.iloc[:, 0])))
# True

Huge space saving, 97%, with no information loss!

Let's now write the compressed dataframe into a file and compare the sizes of the files.

comp_gc.save_to_file("gc_compressed.txt")

Checking the size of the compressed file, it is 87 KB. Meaning that in total we saved around 60%. Future versions will be optimized to save more space.

Let's now check when we reload the file, will we lose any information or not.

## Load the file
gc_original2 = lzhw.decompress_df_from_file("gc_compressed.txt")
print(list(gc_original2.iloc[:, 13]) == list(map(str, gc_original.iloc[:, 13])))
# True

print(gc_original.shape == gc_original2.shape)
# True

Perfect! There is no information loss at all.

Using the lzhw Command Line Interface

In lzhw_cli folder, there is a python script that can work on command line to compress and decompress files.

$python lzhw_cli.py

usage: lzhw_cli.py [-h] [-d] -f INPUT -o OUTPUT
lzhw_cli.py: error: the following arguments are required: -f/--input, -o/--output
$python lzhw_cli.py -h

usage: lzhw_cli.py [-h] [-d] -f INPUT -o OUTPUT

Data Frame Compressor

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -d, --decompress      decompress input into output
  -f INPUT, --input INPUT
                        input file to be (de)compressed
  -o OUTPUT, --output OUTPUT
                        output where to save result
$python lzhw_cli.py -f "file_to_compress" -o "output"

compressed successfully
$python lzhw_cli.py -d -f "file_to_decompress" -o "output"

decompressed successfully

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