Markov Chain generator from random process data

## Project description

# Markov Chain and Finite-State Stochastic Machine

This package implements functionality for analyzing stochastic (or random)
finite state (Markov) processes.

It can build a Markov chain from the states of the process.

Also the package provides non-deterministic FSM (finite-state machine)
functionality for evaluating of Markov chains. You can easily build
a probabilistic automaton from the Markov chain.

One more feature is an integration with amazing [Graphviz](http://www.graphviz.org/) tool.
`markovfsm` plots a state transitions graph of Markov model for you.

# Installation
As usual, `pip install markovfsm`

No special prerequisites required, expect the Graphviz, if you want to use plotting features.
In such case, you have to install Graphviz and [`graphviz` PyPI package](https://pypi.org/project/graphviz/).

# Usage examples
## Coin flipping
Let's start with the simplest Markov process - a flipping of perfect coin.
Let '0' state be 'tails' and '1' state correspond to 'heads'.

We define a random function (`coin()`), once being evaluated, returns the next state of the process.

Let's create a `Chain` object and perform big enough count of experiments:
```python
from random import random
from graphviz import Digraph

from markovfsm import Chain
from markovfsm.plot import transitions_to_graph

def coin(): # random process: the perfect coin flipping
return 1 if random() > 0.5 else 0

chain = Chain(2, coin()) # create an empty Markov chain with 2 states

for i in range(1000000): # let the Markov chain build state transition matrix
chain.learn(coin()) # based on 1000000 of coin flips
```
Let's plot a graph of state transitions.
```python
g = Digraph(format='svg', engine='dot',
graph_attr={'pad': '0.1', 'nodesep': '0.4', 'ranksep': '1.0'},
node_attr={'fontname': 'Helvetica'},
edge_attr={'fontsize': '8.0', 'fontname': 'Helvetica'})

transitions_to_graph(g, chain.transition_matrix(),
lambda s: "tails" if s == 0 else "heads")

g.render('./graph') # this will output ``graph.svg`` (SVG graphics)
# and ``graph`` (DOT language) files
```

## Rigged dice
Another illustrative example is the process of rolling a rigged dice.
We use beta distribution to emulate non-perfect dice.

The remaining part of the code almost the same.
```python
#!coding:utf-8

from random import betavariate
from graphviz import Digraph

from markovfsm import Chain
from markovfsm.plot import transitions_to_graph

def rigged_dice():
return int((betavariate(0.5, 0.7) * 6))

chain = Chain(6, rigged_dice())

# roll dice many times to build Markov chain for this process
for i in range(100000):
chain.learn(rigged_dice())
```

And then let's plot states transitions.
```python
def state_mapping(state):
if state == 0: return u'⚀'
if state == 1: return u'⚁'
if state == 2: return u'⚂'
if state == 3: return u'⚃'
if state == 4: return u'⚄'
if state == 5: return u'⚅'

g = Digraph(format='svg', engine='dot',
graph_attr={'pad': '0.1', 'nodesep': '0.15', 'ranksep': '0.5'},
edge_attr={'fontsize': '6.0', 'fontname':'Helvetica'})

transitions_to_graph(g, chain.transition_matrix(), state_mapping)
g.render('./graph')
```

# Probabilistic finite-state machine
Finite-state machine (FSM, or state machine) is a model of computation.
The machine can be in exactly one of finite number of states.
Probabilistic automaton is a FSM where transitions between states are probabilistic.
Unlike normal FSM, requiring only a graph of possible transitions between states,
probabilistic automaton adds probability of every transition.
```python
from random import random

# build Markov chain with 2 states, init with random state
chain = Chain(2, 0 if random() > 0.5 else 1)

# flip coin many times and build Markov chain for this process
# let 0 be heads and 1 tails
for i in range(1000000):
chain.learn(0 if random() > 0.5 else 1)

# get transition matrix
# It should look like:
#
# P = | 0.5 0.5 |
# | 0.5 0.5 |
#
P = chain.transition_matrix()

print "%s %s" % (P, P)
print "%s %s" % (P, P)

# get probabilities of transition from state 0 to other states (0 and 1)
# actually, the line in the transition matrix
print chain.get_transitions_probs(0)

# let's make a FSM with stochastic properties equal to described by Markov chain
# use rnd() as a random numbers generator, and 0 (heads) as initial state
fsm = FSM(chain, 0)

fsm.next() # will change the state of automaton randomly in a such way that
# the statistics of such transition will be equal to Markov process
# statistics
```

# API
`chain.transition_matrix()` will return transition matrix: a matrix N x N,
where N is the number of states, where each i-row correspond to the state of the process
and each j-element in the row contains the probability of transition to state ``j``
from the state ``i``.

`chain.learn(state)` will learn Markov chain from new `state` transition

`FSM(chain, initial_state)` - object, representing probabilistic automaton,
built from `chain` in state `initial_state`

News
====

0.2
---

*Release date: 25-Mar-2019*

* Updated usage information and added illustrations
* Better documentation

0.1
---

*Release date: 20-Dec-2017*

* Initial release

## Project details

This version 0.2 0.1 0.1a pre-release