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JWT Access Auth Identity Policy for Morepath

Project Description

more.jwtauth: JWT Authentication integration for Morepath

Overview

This is a Morepath authentication extension for the JSON Web Token (JWT) Authentication.

For more information about JWT, see:

To access resources using JWT Access Authentication, the client must have obtained a JWT to make signed requests to the server. The Token can be opaque to client, although, unless it is encrypted, the client can read the claims made in the token.

JWT validates the authenticity of the claimset using the signature.

This plugin uses the PyJWT library from José Padilla for verifying JWTs.

Introduction

The general workflow of JWT Access Authentication:
  • After the client has sent the login form we check if the user exists and if the password is valid.
  • In this case more.jwtauth generates a JWT token including all information in a claim set and send it back to the client inside the HTTP authentication header.
  • The client stores it in some local storage and send it back in the authentication header on every request.
  • more.jwtauth validates the authenticity of the claim set using the signature included in the token.
  • The logout should be handled by the client by removing the token and making some cleanup depending on the implementation.

You can include all necessary information about the identity in the token so JWT Access Authentication can be used by a stateless service e.g. with external password validation.

Requirements

  • Python (2.7, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5)
  • morepath (>= 0.16.1)
  • PyJWT (1.4.2)
  • optional: cryptography (1.5.2)

Note

If you want to use another algorithm than HMAC (HS*), you need to install cryptography. On some systems this can be a little tricky. Please follow the instructions in https://cryptography.io/en/latest/installation and be sure to install all dependencies as referenced.

Installation

You can use pip for installing more.jwtauth:

  • pip install -U more.jwtauth[crypto] - for installing with cryptography
  • pip install -U more.jwtauth - installing without cryptography

Usage

For a basic setup just set the necessary settings including a key or key file and pass them to JWTIdentityPolicy:

import morepath
from more.jwtauth import JWTIdentityPolicy


class App(morepath.App):
    pass


@App.setting_section(section="jwtauth")
def get_jwtauth_settings():
    return {
        # Set a key or key file.
        'master_secret': 'secret',

        # Adjust the settings which you need.
        'leeway': 10
    }


@App.identity_policy()
def get_identity_policy(settings):
    # Get the jwtauth settings as a dictionary.
    jwtauth_settings = settings.jwtauth.__dict__.copy()

    # Pass the settings dictionary to the identity policy.
    return JWTIdentityPolicy(**jwtauth_settings)


@App.verify_identity()
def verify_identity(identity):
    # As we use a token based authentication
    # we can trust the claimed identity.
    return True

The login can be done in the standard Morepath way. You can add extra information about the identity, which will be stored in the JWT token and can be accessed through the morepath.Identity object:

class Login(object):
    pass


@App.path(model=Login, path='login')
def get_login():
    return Login()


@App.view(model=Login, request_method='POST')
def login(self, request):
    username = request.POST['username']
    password = request.POST['password']

    # Here you get some extra user information.
    email = request.POST['email']
    role = request.POST['role']

    # Do the password validation.
    if not user_has_password(username, password):
        raise HTTPProxyAuthenticationRequired('Invalid username/password')

    @request.after
    def remember(response):
        # We pass the extra info to the identity object.
        identity = morepath.Identity(username, email=email, role=role)
        request.app.remember_identity(response, request, identity)

    return "You're logged in."  # or something more fancy

Don’t use reserved claim names as “iss”, “aud”, “exp”, “nbf”, “iat”, “jti”, “refresh_until”, “nonce” or the user_id_claim (default: “sub”, see settings). They will be silently ignored.

Advanced:

For testing or if we want to use some methods of the JWTIdentityPolicy class directly we can pass the settings as arguments to the class:

identity_policy = JWTIdentityPolicy(
    master_secret='secret',
    leeway=10
)

Refreshing the token

There are some risks related with using long-term tokens:

  • If you use a stateless solution the token contains user data which could not be up-to-date anymore.
  • If a token get compromised there’s no way to destroy sessions server-side.

A solution is to use short-term tokens and refresh them either just before they expire or even after until the refresh_until claim not expires.

To help you with this more.jwtauth has a refresh API, which uses 4 settings:

  • allow_refresh: Enables the token refresh API when True.
    Default is False
  • refresh_delta: The time delta in which the token can be refreshed
    considering the leeway. Default is 7 days. When None you can always refresh the token.
  • refresh_nonce_handler: Either dotted path to callback function or the
    callback function itself, which receives the userid as argument and returns a nonce which will be validated before refreshing. When None no nonce will be created or validated for refreshing.
  • verify_expiration_on_refresh: If False, expiration_delta for the JWT
    token will not be checked during refresh. Otherwise you can refresh the token only if it’s not yet expired. Default is False.

When refreshing is enabled by setting refresh_delta the token can get 2 additional claims:

  • refresh_until: Timestamp until which the token can be refreshed.
  • nonce: The nonce which was generated by refresh_nonce_handler.

So when you want to refresh your token, either because it has expires or just before, you should adjust your jwtauth settings:

@App.setting_section(section="jwtauth")
def get_jwtauth_settings():
    return {
        # Set a key or key file.
        'master_secret': 'secret',
        'allow_refresh': True,
        'refresh_delta': 300,
        'refresh_nonce_handler': 'yourapp.handler.refresh_nonce_handler'
    }

Alternatively you can set the refresh_nonce_handler by decorating a closure which returns the handler function:

from .model import User


@App.setting(section="jwtauth", name="refresh_nonce_handler")
def get_handler():
  def refresh_nonce_handler(userid):
      # This returns a nonce from the user endity
      # which can just be an UUID you created before.
      return User.get(username=userid).nonce
    return refresh_nonce_handler

After you can send a request to the refresh end-point for refreshing the token:

from  morepath import Identity
from more.jwtauth import (
    verify_refresh_request, InvalidTokenError, ExpiredSignatureError
)

from .app import App
from .model import User


class Refresh(object):
    pass


@App.path(model=Refresh, path='refresh')
def get_refresh():
    return Refresh()


@App.view(model=Refresh)
def refresh(self, request):
    try:
        # Verifies if we're allowed to refresh the token.
        # In this case returns the userid.
        # If not raises exceptions based on InvalidTokenError.
        # If expired this is a ExpiredSignatureError.
        username = verify_refresh_request(request)
    except ExpiredSignatureError:
        @request.after
        def expired_nonce_or_token(response):
            response.status_code = 403
        return "Your session has expired."
    except InvalidTokenError:
        @request.after
        def invalid_token(response):
            response.status_code = 403
        return "Could not refresh your token."
    else:
        # get user info from the database to update the claims
        User.get(username=username)

        @request.after
        def remember(response):
            # create the identity with the userid and updated user info
            identity = Identity(
                username, email=user.email, role=user.role
            )
            # create the updated token and set it in the response header
            request.app.remember_identity(response, request, identity)

        return "Token sucessfully refreshed."

So now on every token refresh the user data gets updated.

When using the refresh_nonce_handler, you can just change the nonce if the token gets compromised, e.g. by storing a new UUID in the user endity, and the existing tokens will not be refreshed anymore.

Exceptions

When refreshing the token fails, an exception is raised. All exceptions are subclasses of more.jwtauth.InvalidTokenError, so you can catch them with except InvalidTokenError. For each exception a description of the failure is added. The following exceptions could be raised:

  • InvalidTokenError: A plain InvalidTokenError is used when the refreshing API is disabled, the JWT token could not be found or the refresh nonce is invalid.
  • ExpiredSignatureError: when the refresh_until claim has expired or when the JWT token has expired in case verify_expiration_on_refresh is enabled.
  • MissingRequiredClaimError: When the refresh_until claim is missing if a refresh_delta was provided or when the nonce claim is missing if refresh_nonce_handler is in use.
  • DecodeError: When the JWT token could not be decoded.

Settings

There are some settings that you can override. Here are all the defaults:

@App.setting_section(section="jwtauth")
def get_jwtauth_settings():
    return {
        'master_secret': None,
        'private_key': None,
        'private_key_file': None,
        'public_key': None,
        'public_key_file': None,
        'algorithm': "HS256",
        'expiration_delta': datetime.timedelta(minutes=30),
        'leeway': 0,
        'allow_refresh': False,
        'refresh_delta': timedelta(days=7),
        'refresh_nonce_handler': None,
        'verify_expiration_on_refresh': False,
        'issuer': None,
        'auth_header_prefix': "JWT",
        'userid_claim': "sub"
    }

The following settings are available:

master_secret
A secret known only by the server, used for the default HMAC (HS*) algorithm. Default is None.
private_key
An Elliptic Curve or an RSA private_key used for the EC (EC*) or RSA (PS*/RS*) algorithms. Default is None.
private_key_file
A file holding an Elliptic Curve or an RSA encoded (PEM/DER) private_key. Default is None.
public_key
An Elliptic Curve or an RSA public_key used for the EC (EC*) or RSA (PS*/RS*) algorithms. Default is None.
public_key_file
A file holding an Elliptic Curve or an RSA encoded (PEM/DER) public_key. Default is None.
algorithm
The algorithm used to sign the key. Defaults is HS256.
expiration_delta
Time delta from now until the token will expire. Set to None to disable. This can either be a datetime.timedelta or the number of seconds. Default is 6 hours.
leeway
The leeway, which allows you to validate an expiration time which is in the past, but not very far. To use either as a datetime.timedelta or the number of seconds. Defaults is 0.
allow_refresh
Setting to True enables the refreshing API. Default is False
refresh_delta
A time delta in which the token can be refreshed considering the leeway. This can either be a datetime.timedelta or the number of seconds. Default is 7 days. When None you can always refresh the token.
refresh_nonce_handler
Dotted path to callback function, which receives the userid as argument and returns a nonce which will be validated before refreshing. When None no nonce will be created or validated for refreshing. Default is None.
verify_expiration_on_refresh
If False, expiration_delta for the JWT token will not be checked during refresh. Otherwise you can refresh the token only if it’s not yet expired. Default is False.
issuer
This is a string that will be checked against the iss claim of the token. You can use this e.g. if you have several related apps with exclusive user audience. Default is None (do not check iss on JWT).
auth_header_prefix
You can modify the Authorization header value prefix that is required to be sent together with the token. The default value is JWT. Another common value used for tokens is Bearer.
userid_claim
The claim, which contains the user id. The default claim is ‘sub’.

The library takes either a master_secret or private_key/public_key pair. In the later case the algorithm must be an EC*, PS* or RS* version.

Algorithms

The JWT spec supports several algorithms for cryptographic signing. This library currently supports:

HS256
HMAC using SHA-256 hash algorithm (default)
HS384
HMAC using SHA-384 hash algorithm
HS512
HMAC using SHA-512 hash algorithm
ES256 [1]
ECDSA signature algorithm using SHA-256 hash algorithm
ES384 [1]
ECDSA signature algorithm using SHA-384 hash algorithm
ES512 [1]
ECDSA signature algorithm using SHA-512 hash algorithm
PS256 [1]
RSASSA-PSS signature using SHA-256 and MGF1 padding with SHA-256
PS384 [1]
RSASSA-PSS signature using SHA-384 and MGF1 padding with SHA-384
PS512 [1]
RSASSA-PSS signature using SHA-512 and MGF1 padding with SHA-512
RS256 [1]
RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 signature algorithm using SHA-256 hash algorithm
RS384 [1]
RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 signature algorithm using SHA-384 hash algorithm
RS512 [1]
RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 signature algorithm using SHA-512 hash algorithm
[1](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)

The marked algorithms require more.jwtauth to be installed with its crypto dependencies:

$ pip install -U more.jwtauth[crypto]

See Installation for details. In case of problems be sure to have read the note in the Requirements section.

Developing more.jwtauth

Install more.jwtauth for development

Clone more.jwtauth from github:

.. code-block:: console
$ git clone git@github.com:morepath/more.jwtauth.git

If this doesn’t work and you get an error ‘Permission denied (publickey)’, you need to upload your ssh public key to github.

Then go to the more.jwtauth directory:

.. code-block:: console
$ cd more.jwtauth

Make sure you have virtualenv installed.

Create a new virtualenv for Python 3 inside the more.jwtauth directory:

.. code-block:: console
$ virtualenv -p python3 env/py3

Activate the virtualenv:

.. code-block:: console
$ source env/py3/bin/activate

Make sure you have recent setuptools and pip installed:

.. code-block:: console
$ pip install -U setuptools pip

Install the various dependencies and development tools from develop_requirements.txt:

.. code-block:: console
$ pip install -Ur develop_requirements.txt

For upgrading the requirements just run the command again.

If you want to test more.jwtauth with Python 2.7 as well you can create a second virtualenv for it:

.. code-block:: console
$ virtualenv -p python2.7 env/py27

You can then activate it:

.. code-block:: console
$ source env/py27/bin/activate

Then uprade setuptools and pip and install the develop requirements as described above.

Note

The following commands work only if you have the virtualenv activated.

Running the tests

You can run the tests using py.test:

.. code-block:: console
$ py.test

To generate test coverage information as HTML do:

.. code-block:: console
$ py.test –cov –cov-report html

You can then point your web browser to the htmlcov/index.html file in the project directory and click on modules to see detailed coverage information.

Various checking tools

flake8 is a tool that can do various checks for common Python mistakes using pyflakes, check for PEP8 style compliance and can do cyclomatic complexity checking. To do pyflakes and pep8 checking do:

.. code-block:: console
$ flake8 more.jwtauth

To also show cyclomatic complexity, use this command:

.. code-block:: console
$ flake8 –max-complexity=10 more.jwtauth

Tox

With tox you can test Morepath under different Python environments.

We have Travis continuous integration installed on Morepath’s github repository and it runs the same tox tests after each checkin.

First you should install all Python versions which you want to test. The versions which are not installed will be skipped. You should at least install Python 3.5 which is required by flake8, coverage and doctests and Python 2.7 for testing Morepath with Python 2.

One tool you can use to install multiple versions of Python is pyenv.

To find out which test environments are defined for Morepath in tox.ini run:

.. code-block:: console
$ tox -l

You can run all tox tests with:

.. code-block:: console
$ tox

You can also specify a test environment to run e.g.:

.. code-block:: console
$ tox -e py35 $ tox -e pep8 $ tox -e coverage

CHANGES

0.9 (2017-03-02)

  • New: Add an API to refresh the JWT token (see issue #6).

    This implement adding 4 new settings:

    • allow_refresh: Enables the token refresh API when True.
    • refresh_delta: The time delta in which the token can be refreshed considering the leeway.
    • refresh_nonce_handler: Dotted path to callback function, which receives the userid as argument and returns a nonce which will be validated before refreshing.
    • verify_expiration_on_refresh: If False, expiration_delta for the JWT token will not be checked during refresh. Otherwise you can refresh the token only if it’s not yet expired.

    It also adds 2 claims to the token when refreshing is enabled:

    • refresh_until: Timestamp until which the token can be refreshed.
    • nonce: The nonce which was returned by refresh_nonce_handler.

    For details see README.rst.

  • Removed: The verify_expiration setting has been removed as it was mainly for custom handling of token refreshing, which is now obsolente.

  • Pass algorithm explicit to jwt.decode() to avoid some vulnerabilities. For details see the blog post by Tim McLean about some “Critical vulnerabilities in JSON Web Token libraries”.

  • Allow expiration_delta and leeway as number of seconds in addition to datetime.timedelta.

  • Some code cleanup and refactoring.

0.8 (2016-10-21)

  • We now use virtualenv and pip instead of buildout to set up the development environment. A development section has been added to the README accordingly.
  • Review and optimize the tox configuration.
  • Upgrade to PyJWT 1.4.2 and Cryptography 1.5.2.

0.7 (2016-07-20)

  • Upgrade to Morepath 0.15.
  • Upgrade to PyJWT 1.4.1 and Cryptography 1.4.
  • Add testenv for Python 3.5 and make it the default test environment.
  • Change author to “Morepath developers”.
  • Clean up classifiers.

0.6 (2016-05-19)

  • Make Cryptography optional.

    Breaking Change: For using other algorithms than HMAC you now need to install the crypto dependencies explicitly. Read the note in the Requirements section and the new Installation section of README.rst.

  • Add an Installation section to the README.

  • Refactor the cryptography test suite.

0.5 (2016-04-25)

  • Adding some tests.
  • Increase coverage to 100%.
  • Add travis-ci and tox integration.
  • Some clean-up.
  • Upgrade to Morepath 0.14.
  • Some improvements to the setup and release workflow.

0.4 (2016-04-13)

  • Upgrade to Morepath 0.13.2 and update the tests.
  • Upgrade PyJWT to 1.3.0 and cryptography to 1.3.1.
  • Make it a PyPI package and release it. Fixes Issue #1.

0.3 (2016-04-13)

  • Upgrade PyJWT to 1.4.0 and cryptography to 0.9.1.
  • Python 3.2 is no longer a supported platform. This version of Python is rarely used. PyUsers affected by this should upgrade to 3.3+.
  • Some cleanup.

0.2 (2015-06-29)

  • Integrate the set_jwt_auth_header function into the identity policy as remember method.
  • Add support for PS256, PS384, and PS512 algorithms.
  • Pass settings directly as arguments to the JWTIdentityPolicy class with the possibility to override them with Morepath settings using the method introduced in Morepath 0.11.
  • Remove JwtApp as now we use JWTIdentityPolicy directly without inherit from JwtApp.
  • Add a Introduction and Usage section to README.
  • Integrate all functions as methods in the JWTIdentityPolicy Class.
  • Refactor the test suite.

0.1 (2015-04-15)

  • Initial public release.
Release History

Release History

This version
History Node

0.9

History Node

0.8

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0.7

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0.6

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0.4

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