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A library for working with ONTAP's REST APIs simply in Python

Project description

NetApp ONTAP

The Python client library is a package you can use when writing scripts to access the ONTAP REST API. It provides support for several underlying services, including connection management, asynchronous request processing, and exception handling. By using the Python client library, you can quickly develop robust code to support the automation of your ONTAP deployments.

Getting started

Software requirements

Before installing the Python client library, you must make sure the following packages are installed on your system:

1. python 3.5 or later
2. requests 2.21.0 or later
3. marshmallow 3.2.1 or later

Installing and importing the package

You must install the package using the pip utility:

pip install netapp-ontap

After installing the package, you can import the objects you need into your application:

from netapp_ontap.resources import Volume, Snapshot

Creating an object

You can create an object in several different ways. Here are three examples of creating an equivalent netapp_ontap.resources.volume object.

from netapp_ontap.resources import Volume

# Example 1 - keyword arguments
volume = Volume(name='vol1', svm={'name': 'vs1'}, aggregates=[{'name': 'aggr1'}])

# Example 2 - dict as keyword arguments
data = {
    'name': 'vol1',
    'svm': {'name': 'vs1'},
    'aggregates': [{'name': 'aggr1'}],
}
volume = Volume(**data)

# Example 3 - using the from_dict() method
volume = Volume.from_dict({
    'name': 'vol1',
    'svm': {'name': 'vs1'},
    'aggregates': [{'name': 'aggr1'}],
})

Performing actions on an object

After you create an object, you can perform actions on the object based on the purpose and design of your application. The example below illustrates how to create a new volume and then take a snapshot.

Note that when using the library, in all cases you must first establish a connection to the management LIF of the ONTAP system using the netapp_ontap.host_connection.HostConnection object. In the example below, the connection is created and then set as the global default. This means that all objects and the associated actions reuse this same connection. See Host connections for more information.

from netapp_ontap import config
from netapp_ontap.host_connection import HostConnection
from netapp_ontap.resources import Volume, Snapshot

config.CONNECTION = HostConnection('myhost.mycompany.com', 'username', 'password')

volume = Volume(name='vol1', svm={'name': 'vs1'}, aggregates=[{'name': 'aggr1'}])
volume.post()
snapshot = Snapshot.from_dict({
    'name': '%s_snapshot' % volume.name,
    'comment': 'A snapshot of %s' % volume.name,
    'volume': volume.to_dict(),
})
snapshot.post()

Host connections

The netapp_ontap.host_connection.HostConnection object allows a client application to store credentials once and reuse them for each subsequent operation. You can do this in any of the following ways:

  • Use the connection object as a context manager with the with keyword.

  • Call the function set_connection() on a specific resource so the connection is used for all actions on the resource.

  • Set the config.CONNECTION variable to establish a single connection instance for all operations within the scope of that block. This allows you to connect to ONTAP once and use the same connection everywhere, instead of providing credentials every time you make a request.

Note that you can call get_connection() to get the connection used by an object and use it for subsequent operations.

By default, every operation attempts to verify the SSL certificate for the connection. If a certificate cannot be verified, the SSLError exception is thrown. You can disable this verification by setting verify to false when creating the netapp_ontap.host_connection.HostConnection instance.

Custom headers

In some cases, you might want to set and send custom headers with the REST request. This can be done at the connection level. For a specific connection, you can pass in the headers you would like to send for each request within the scope of that connection object. The library provides full access to the request headers so that you can update, add, or delete headers from the same connection object at any point. If a header is not recognized by ONTAP, it will simply be ignored.

from netapp_ontap import config, HostConnection
headers = {'my-header1':'my-header-value1', 'my-header2':'my-header-value2'}

#Initialize a connection object with custom headers
config.CONNECTION = HostConnection('myhost.mycompany.com', 'username', 'password', headers=headers)

#Delete a header from a connection object
conn = HostConnection('myhost.mycompany.com', 'username', 'password', headers=headers)
del conn.request_headers['my-header1']

#Add a header to a connection object using the assignment operator
conn = HostConnection('myhost.mycompany.com', 'username', 'password', headers=headers)
conn.request_headers['mynew-header'] = 'mynew-header-value'

#Add headers to a connection object
config.CONNECTION = HostConnection('myhost.mycompany.com', 'username' 'password')
config.CONNECTION.request_headers = headers

#Update an existing header using the assignment operator
config.CONNECTION = HostConnection('myhost.mycompany.com','username','password', headers=headers)
config.CONNECTION.request_headers['my-header1'] = 'my-new-header'

Asynchronous processing and jobs

All POST, PATCH, and DELETE requests that can take more than two seconds to complete are designed to run asynchronously as non-blocking operations. These operations are executed as background jobs at the ONTAP cluster. The HTTP response generated by an asynchronous request always contains a link to the associated job object. By default, an asynchronous request automatically polls the job using the unique job identifier in the link. Control is returned to your script when a terminal state is reached (success or failure) or the configured timeout value expires. However, you can override this behavior by setting the poll value to false when calling the function, causing control to return before the job completes. Forcing an immediate return can be useful when a job might take a long time to complete and you want to continute execution of the script.

Responses

A request always returns a netapp_ontap.response.NetAppResponse object which contains the details of the HTTP response. It contains information such as whether the response was an error or a job. Refer to netapp_ontap.response.NetAppResponse for further information on how to check the details of the response.

Exception handling

By default, an exception is returned if a request returns an HTTP status code of 400 or greater. The exception object, which is of type netapp_ontap.error.NetAppRestError, holds the HTTP response object so that the exception can be handled in the client code. If you wish not to raise exceptions, you can set raise_api_errors to False. In this case, it is up to the client to check the HTTP response from the netapp_ontap.response.NetAppResponse object and handle any errors. Refer to netapp_ontap.error.NetAppRestError for further information.

# Set RAISE_API_ERRORS to False and check the HTTP response.
config.RAISE_API_ERRORS = False
response = Svm.find(name = "nonexistent_vs)
assert "entry doesn't exist" in response.http_response.text

Debugging

While writing your application, it can often be useful to see the raw HTTP request and response text that the library is sending to and from the server. There are two flags that can be set to help with this.

DEBUG flag

The first is the DEBUG flag. This can be set either by setting DEBUG=1 in the environment prior to executing your application or by setting netapp_ontap.utils.DEBUG to 1 inside of your application. This flag, when set, will cause the library to log the request and response for any failed API call. This will be logged at DEBUG level (see the section on logging for setting up your application). Here's an example of setting this value inside of your application:

import logging

from netapp_ontap import HostConnection, NetAppRestError, config, utils
from netapp_ontap.resources import Volume

logging.basicConfig(level=logging.DEBUG)
config.CONNECTION = HostConnection('10.100.200.50', username='admin', password='password', verify=False)

# Set the DEBUG flag to 1
utils.DEBUG = 1

# this API call will fail with a 404
try:
    volume = Volume(uuid="1", name='does_not_exist')
    volume.get()
except NetAppRestError:
    print('We got an expected exception')

Here is what the output would look like:

$ python test_debug.py
DEBUG:urllib3.util.retry:Converted retries value: 5 -> Retry(total=5, connect=None, read=None, redirect=None, status=None)
DEBUG:urllib3.connectionpool:Starting new HTTPS connection (1): 10.100.200.50:443
DEBUG:urllib3.connectionpool:https://10.100.200.50:443 "GET /api/storage/volumes/1 HTTP/1.1" 404 130
DEBUG:netapp_ontap.utils:
-----------REQUEST-----------
GET https://10.100.200.50:443/api/storage/volumes/1
Accept: */*
User-Agent: python-requests/2.21.0
Connection: keep-alive
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
X-Dot-Client-App: netapp-ontap-python-9.8.0
Authorization: Basic YWRtaW46cGFzc3dvcmQK
None
-----------------------------

-----------RESPONSE-----------
404 Not Found
Date:Tue, 12 Nov 2019 13:00:24 GMT
Server:libzapid-httpd
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
Cache-Control: no-cache,no-store,must-revalidate
Content-Length: 130
Content-Type: application/hal+json
Keep-Alive: timeout=5, max=100
Connection:Keep-Alive
{
  "error": {
    "message": "\"1\" is an invalid value for field \"uuid\" (<UUID>)",
    "code": "2",
    "target": "uuid"
  }
}
------------------------------
We got an expected exception
$

LOG_ALL_API_CALLS flag

There is also a LOG_ALL_API_CALLS flag which can be set in the same ways. You can set it in the environment or during script execution by setting netapp_ontap.utils.LOG_ALL_API_CALLS to 1. This flag will produce the same output as above, but it will log the call no matter if there was a failure or not. Here's an example of what that would look like if we got an existing volume:

import logging

from netapp_ontap import HostConnection, config, utils
from netapp_ontap.resources import Volume

logging.basicConfig(level=logging.DEBUG)
config.CONNECTION = HostConnection('10.100.200.50', username='admin', password='password', verify=False)

# Set the LOG_ALL_API_CALLS flag to 1
utils.LOG_ALL_API_CALLS = 1

# this API call will succeed and be logged
volume = list(Volume.get_collection())[0]

Here is what the output would look like:

$ python test_debug.py
DEBUG:urllib3.util.retry:Converted retries value: 5 -> Retry(total=5, connect=None, read=None, redirect=None, status=None)
DEBUG:urllib3.connectionpool:Starting new HTTPS connection (1): 10.100.200.50:443
DEBUG:urllib3.connectionpool:https://10.100.200.50:443 "GET /api/storage/volumes HTTP/1.1" 200 567
DEBUG:netapp_ontap.utils:
-----------REQUEST-----------
GET https://10.100.200.50:443/api/storage/volumes
User-Agent: python-requests/2.21.0
Connection: keep-alive
Accept: */*
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
X-Dot-Client-App: netapp-ontap-python-9.8.0
Authorization: Basic YWRtaW46cGFzc3dvcmQK
None
-----------------------------

-----------RESPONSE-----------
200 OK
Date:Tue, 12 Nov 2019 13:14:01 GMT
Server:libzapid-httpd
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
Cache-Control: no-cache,no-store,must-revalidate
Content-Length: 567
Content-Type: application/hal+json
Keep-Alive: timeout=5, max=100
Connection:Keep-Alive
{
  "records": [
    {
      "uuid": "c68bdca8-d090-11e9-bb29-005056bb7f42",
      "name": "vs0_root",
      "_links": {
        "self": {
          "href": "/api/storage/volumes/c68bdca8-d090-11e9-bb29-005056bb7f42"
        }
      }
    },
    {
      "uuid": "ed3b6ebf-d48e-11e9-bb29-005056bb7f42",
      "name": "vs1_root",
      "_links": {
        "self": {
          "href": "/api/storage/volumes/ed3b6ebf-d48e-11e9-bb29-005056bb7f42"
        }
      }
    }
  ],
  "num_records": 2,
  "_links": {
    "self": {
      "href": "/api/storage/volumes"
    }
  }
}
------------------------------
$

Additional considerations

In most cases, the objects and actions in the library can be mapped directly to equivalent cURL commands run against the ONTAP REST interface. However, there are a few exceptions you should be aware of.

Property names

If a property of a resource is named the same as one of the Python reserved names, the name is transposed when accessing the member of the resource. For example, if there is a resource named "Foo" that has a property defined in the API named "class", the property name would instead be "class_" when using the library. For example:

from netapp_ontap.resources import Foo

foo = Foo()
foo.class_ = "high"

Documentation

To view the full documentation, visit https://library.netapp.com/ecmdocs/ECMLP2858435/html/index.html or to view an offline copy, see the <python_environment>/lib/<python_version>/site_packages/netapp_ontap/docs Documentation of ONTAP's REST APIs and other helpful resources can be found at https://devnet.netapp.com/restapi.

Compatibility

The version assigned to the library consists of the major ONTAP release it is generated from and a minor version for the library within that release. The minor version allows the library to be updated within the same ONTAP release. For example, valid versions for the library associated with ONTAP 9.6 include 9.6.1, 9.6.2, and so on.

Client libraries that have the same major version as ONTAP are completely compatible. For example, the libraries netapp-ontap-9.6.1 and netapp-ontap-9.6.4 are fully compatible with both ONTAP 9.6 and ONTAP 9.6P1.

A client library with a major version that does not match the ONTAP release can still be used, however it will not be fully compatible with the REST API. For example, the library netapp-ontap-9.6.4 is only partially compatible with ONTAP 9.7. In these cases, the library may encounter unknown fields or APIs. When this occurs, the library will ignore unknown fields, return an error, or raise a runtime exception.

Changelog

9.7.0rc1 (2019-11-20)

Library Updates

  • NEW: The application can now add its own custom headers for each request as part of the netapp_ontap.host_connection.HostConnection object
  • NEW: When passing verify=False to the HostConnection, the library will now disable urllib3's InsecureRequestWarning from logging messages
  • BREAKING: In prior versions, Resource.find() would raise an exception if no results were found as well as when more than one was found. In this version, when no results are found, None is returned instead of raising an exception. An exception is still raised when more than one result is found.
  • FIXED: The library doesn't allow sending a body in a DELETE request
  • FIXED: When POSTing or PATCHing some objects with embeded objects, fields might incorrectly be dropped from the request
  • FIXED: Retrieving and setting the "from" field of Autosupport object fails

ONTAP API Updates

All new ONTAP APIs have corresponding library resource objects which can be used to perform the operations. See the netapp_ontap.resources package for details about each of the objects and their fields.

For a summary of the changes in the ONTAP REST API between versions of ONTAP 9, see the ONTAP 9 Release Notes.

  • NEW: DELETE /cluster/nodes/{uuid}
    • Removes a node from the cluster
  • NEW: GET, POST, PATCH, DELETE /cluster/ntp/keys/{id}
    • Allows management of NTP server shared keys
  • NEW: GET, POST, PATCH, DELETE /cluster/ntp/servers/{server}
    • Allows management of keyed NTP servers
  • NEW: GET /cluster/software/download
    • Allows monitoring the status of the image package download progress
  • NEW: GET, POST, PATCH, DELETE /network/http-proxy/{uuid}
    • Allows configuration of an HTTP proxy for the cluster or SVM IP spaces
  • NEW: GET, POST, PATCH, DELETE /network/ip/bgp/peer-groups/{uuid}
    • Manages information pertaining to the BGP peer-groups configured in the cluster
  • NEW: GET /protocols/san/fcp/services/{svm.uuid}/metrics
    • Retrieves historical performance metrics for the FC Protocol service of an SVM
  • NEW: GET /protocols/san/iscsi/services/{svm.uuid}/metrics
    • Retrieves historical performance metrics for the iSCSI protocol of an SVM
  • NEW: GET /storage/luns/{uuid}/metrics
    • Retrieves historical performance metrics for a LUN
  • NEW: GET /protocols/nvme/services/{svm.uuid}/metrics
    • Retrieves historical performance metrics for NVMe protocol of an SVM
  • NEW: GET, POST, DELETE /support/configuration-backup/{node.uuid}/{name}
    • Creates, retrieves, and deletes backup configurations for the cluster
  • NEW: GET, POST, DELETE /support/snmp/traphosts/{host}
    • Configures SNMP traphosts which will receive SNMP traps from ONTAP
  • NEW: GET, POST, PATCH, DELETE /support/snmp/users/{engine_id}/{name}
    • Configures SNMP users that are able to query the ONTAP SNMP server
  • NEW: GET /security
    • Retrieves information about the security configured on the cluster
  • NEW: GET, POST, PATCH, DELETE /security/authentication/cluster/ad-proxy
    • Configures which data SVM will be used to proxy cluster management AD authentication
  • NEW: GET, POST, PATCH, DELETE /security/authentication/publickeys/{owner.uuid}/{account.name}/{index}
    • Configures the public keys used for user accounts
  • NEW: POST /security/key-managers/{source.uuid}/migrate
    • Migrates the keys belonging to an SVM between the cluster's key manager and the SVM's key manager
  • NEW: GET, PATCH /security/ssh
    • Manages the SSH server running in ONTAP
  • NEW: GET /storage/aggregates/{uuid}/metrics
    • Provides historical performance metrics for the specified aggregate
  • NEW: PATCH /storage/disks
    • Updates the encryption controls of self-encrypting disks
  • NEW: GET, POST, PATCH, DELETE /storage/snapshot-policies/{snapshot-policy.uuid}/schedules/{uuid}
    • Manages the policies regarding when snapshots are taken
  • NEW: GET, PATCH /protocols/ndmp
    • Manages NDMP mode at either SVM-scope or node-scope
  • NEW: GET, PATCH /protocols/ndmp/{node.uuid}
    • Manages node-scoped NDMP settings
  • NEW: GET, DELETE /protocols/ndmp/sessions/{owner.uuid}/{session.id}
    • Manages diagnostic information on NDMP sessions belonging to a specific SVM in the case of SVM-scope or to a specific node in the case of node-scope
  • NEW: GET, PATCH /protocols/ndmp/svms/{svm.uuid}
    • Manages SVM-scoped NDMP settings
  • NEW: GET, POST, PATCH, DELETE /storage/snaplock/audit-logs/{svm.uuid}
    • Manages the logging policies for a snaplock volume
  • NEW: GET /storage/snaplock/compliance-clocks/{node.uuid}
    • Manages the ComplianceClock of the system which determines the expiry time of the SnapLock objects in the system
  • NEW: GET, POST /storage/snaplock/event-retention/operations/{id}
    • Displays all Event Based Retention (EBR) operations and to apply an EBR policy on a specified volume
  • NEW: GET, POST, PATCH, DELETE /storage/snaplock/event-retention/policies/{policy.name}
    • Manages retention policies for snaplock files and directories
  • NEW: GET, PATCH, DELETE /storage/snaplock/files/{volume.uuid}/{path}
    • Manages the SnapLock retention time of a file
  • NEW: GET, POST, DELETE /storage/snaplock/file-fingerprints/{id}
    • Manages key information about snaplock files and volumes
  • NEW: GET, POST, DELETE /storage/snaplock/litigations/{id}
    • Retains Compliance-mode WORM files for the duration of a litigation
  • NEW: GET, /storage/snaplock/litigations/{litigation.id}/files
    • Displays the list of files under the specified litigation ID
  • NEW: GET, POST, DELETE /storage/snaplock/litigations/{litigation.id}/operations/{id}
    • Manages the legal-hold operations for the specified litigation ID
  • NEW: GET /protocols/cifs/services/{svm.uuid}/metrics
    • Retrieves historical performance metrics for the CIFS protocol of an SVM
  • NEW: GET /protocols/nfs/connected-clients
    • Provides a list of currently connected NFS clients or clients that can be connected but are currently idle
  • NEW: GET /protocols/nfs/services/{svm.uuid}/metrics
    • Retrieves historical performance metrics for the NFS protocol of an SVM
  • NEW: GET /protocols/s3/buckets
    • Retrieves all S3 buckets for all SVMs
  • NEW: GET, POST, PATCH, DELETE /protocols/s3/services/{svm.uuid}
    • Manages S3 servers which allow you to store objects in ONTAP using Amazon S3 protocol
  • NEW: GET, POST, PATCH, DELETE /protocols/s3/services/{svm.uuid}/buckets/{uuid}
    • Manages S3 buckets which are a container of objects
  • NEW: GET, POST, PATCH, DELETE /protocols/s3/services/{svm.uuid}/users/{name}
    • Manages S3 user accounts on the server. Buckets that are created are associated with a user

9.6.0 (2019-07-16)

  • initial release

Copyright, trademarks, and feedback

Copyright information

Copyright © 2019 NetApp, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the U.S.

No part of this document covered by copyright may be reproduced in any form or by any means‐graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or storage in an electronic retrieval system‐without prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Software derived from copyrighted NetApp material is subject to the following license and disclaimer:

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY NETAPP "AS IS" AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WHICH ARE HEREBY DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NETAPP BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

NetApp reserves the right to change any products described herein at any time, and without notice. NetApp assumes no responsibility or liability arising from the use of products described herein, except as expressly agreed to in writing by NetApp. The use or purchase of this product does not convey a license under any patent rights, trademark rights, or any other intellectual property rights of NetApp. The product described in this manual may be protected by one or more U.S. patents, foreign patents, or pending applications.

RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND: Use, duplication,or disclosure by the government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.277-7103 (October 1988) and FAR 52-227-19 (June 1987).

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NETAPP, the NETAPP logo, and the marks listed on the NetApp Trademarks page are trademarks of NetApp, Inc. Other company and product names may be trademarks of their respective owners. http://www.netapp.com/us/legal/netapptmlist.aspx

Feedback

If you have questions about the library, suggestions, or find a bug, you may contact by email

ng-ontap-rest-python-client-lib@netapp.com

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