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Ochrona checks your open source dependencies for vulnerabilities and policy violations.

Project description

Ochrona PyPI Versions License Downloads Vuln DB Version codecov Code style: black


Ochrona is a free solution for securing the dependencies used in Python projects. Ochrona also includes support for policies which give you additional control over what aspects of your dependency usage you'd like to be alerted on.

The Ochrona maintainers care deeply about Developer Experience (DX), if you have any feedback or run into issues please open an issue here.

Vulnerability Data

Ochrona maintains its own database of vulnerabilities impacting Python packages. You're welcome to check out the database here. This database is updated frequently using data from NVD, Github, and other sources. Ochrona will update its local copy of the database if a new version exists.

Supported file types

  • *requirements*.txt
  • Pipfile.lock
  • poetry.lock
  • *constraints*.txt
  • environment.yml
  • tox.ini


via pip

pip install ochrona

via pipenv

pipenv install --dev ochrona

via poetry

poetry add -D ochrona


via command line args

Arg Description Type Example
--dir Directory to recursively search for dependencies files to scan [.] path /User/me/my_project
--exclude_dir Directory names that should be excluded from recursive search. Comma separated str build,dev
--file Single dependency file to scan file /User/me/my_project/requirements.txt
--debug Enable debug logging [False] bool True
--silent Silent mode [False] bool True
--report_type The report type that's desired [BASIC] str XML
--output Location for report output path /User/me/my_project/logs
--exit Exit with Code 0 regardless of vulnerability findings. [False] bool True
--ignore Ignore a CVE or package str requests
--include_dev Include develop dependencies from Pipfile.lock [False] bool True
--sbom Must be provided, along with --output to generate an SBOM [False] bool True
--sbom_format Whether the generated SBOM should be a JSON or XML file. [JSON] str JSON
--enable_sast Whether SAST checks should be run [False] bool True
--sast_id_exclude Whether a SAST check should be ignored str O001
--sast_dir Which directory should SAST checks run against path /User/me/my_project/src

via environment variables

Variable Name Corresponding Arg

via .ochrona.yml

There is an empty .ochrona.yml file included in the repo.

Key Description Type Example
dir Directory to recursively search for dependencies files to scan [.] path /User/me/my_project
exclude_dir Directory names that should be excluded from recursive search. array build
file Single dependency file to scan file /User/me/my_project/requirements.txt
debug Enable debug logging [false] bool true
silent Silent mode [false] bool true
report_type The report type that's desired [BASIC] str XML
report_location Location for report output [.] path /User/me/my_project/logs
exit Exit with Code 0 regardless of vulnerability findings [false] bool true
ignore Ignore a CVE or package name. Supports multiple values. str requests
include_dev Include develop dependencies from files that support dev/required dependencies [false] bool true
color_output Whether or not std out text should use color. Note: this is enabled by default when running in a non-Windows environment [true] bool false
policies Policies are a way of defining additional checks against your dependencies. See here for more details array details
sbom SBOM will only be generated if this argument is supplied. report_location also must be specified to generate an SBOM. See here for more details about SBOMs [false] bool false
sbom_format Whether the generated SBOM should be a JSON or XML file. [JSON] str JSON
enable_sast Whether SAST checks should be run [False] bool true
sast_id_exclude Whether a SAST check should be ignored. See list of SAST IDs here. Supports multiple values. str O001
sast_dir Which directory should SAST checks run against. [.] path /User/me/my_project/src


# debug: true
# silent: false
# dir: .
# report_type: JSON
# report_location: .
# ignore: 
# - requests
# include_dev: false
# color_output: false
# policies:
#  - license_type NIN APSL,GPL-PA,JSON
# sbom: true
# sbom_format: JSON
# enable_sast: true
# sast_id_exclude:
#  - O001
# sast_dir: ./src


Policies are a way to add additional check to your Python dependency usage. Policies can be defined using conditional and logical syntax. These generic policy definitions allow you to define unique, custom policies to fit your need, and they can be extensible as new fields and capabilities are added.

Policy vioations are not the same as vulnerabilities, however violations will cause Ochrona to emit a failure exit code and the output will include details about the policy violation.

Policy Syntax

At their most basic, policies are defined using conditional statements and logical operators. A conditional statement is structured as <field><operator><value>, for example, license_type == MIT. Whitespace is always ignored during policy evaluation.

Allowed Fields

Name Description
name The name of a package.
license_type An SPDX license type for a package.
latest_version The most recent version of a package.
latest_update The timestamp for when a package was last updated. ISO-8601 Format YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM-SS.ffffffZ
release_count The number of releases a package has on Pypi.

Allowed Conditional Operators

Operator Description
== An equals operator for comparing exact string matches.
!= A NOT equals operators for non-matching strings.
< Less than, for comparing numerical or string values.
<= Less than or equal to.
> Greater than, for comparing numerical or string values.
>= Greater than or equal to.
IN For checking whether a value exists within a set. Values used with IN should be comma separated.
NIN For checking that a value does not exist within a set. Values used with NIN should be comma separated.

Allowed Logical Operators

Operator Description
AND For checking that both adjacent conditions are true.
OR For checking that at least one adjacent condition is true.

Special Values

Value Description
NOW-N Shorthand for an ISO 8601 formatted date in the past. N will be an integer number of days.
* Match ANY value, only works with == operator.


Policies allow the usage of ( and ) to indicate evaluation precedence and grouping. Example (license_type==Apache-2.0 OR license_type==MIT) AND latest_update < NOW-30

Policy Examples

# Policy to check that a license type is in my aproved list
license_type IN MIT,ISC,Apache-2.0

# Policy to check that all packages have been updated this year
latest_update >= NOW-365


Software Bill-of-Materials (SBOM) are a list of the components used to build a piece of software. They aim to make the delivery and composition of software components more transparent. These documents can be useful for understanding software supply chains and ensuring license complaince.

Ochrona has opted to support (CycloneDX)[] as our SBOM standard of choice. CycloneDX is a lightweight software bill of materials (SBOM) standard designed for use in application security contexts and supply chain component analysis. CycloneDX is developed and support by (OWASP)[].

To enable sbom generation, the --sbom and --output arguements needs to be provided.

Static Analysis Beta

Ochrona has introduced limited Static Application Security Testing (SAST) in version 2.0.0 as a beta feature. These check are run if the --enable_sast argument is provided. It will run recursively against all .py files found in the current working directory.

SAST Checks

ID Description
O001 Checks for use of "exec" from the Standard Library.
O002 Checks for use of "eval" from the Standard Library.
O003 Checks for use of the "assert" keyword.
O004 Checks for use of "tarfile.extractall" from the Standard Library.
O005 Checks for use of "pickle.loads" from the Standard Library.
O006 Checks for use of "xml.etree.ElementTree.parse" from the Standard Library.
O101 Checks for use of "load" from PyYAML.
O102 Checks for usage of Requests with verify=False.
O103 Checks for usage of Flask with debug=True.

Usage Examples

Default Mode

$ ochrona

This will search for any supported dependency files recursively from the run location. It will output rules in the BASIC format to stdout. The program will exit with an error exit code if any confirmed vulnerabilities are found.

Standard error code with Junit XML reporting saved to file

$ ochrona --exit --report_type XML --output ./output

Safe Import Mode

In this mode ochrona acts as a safe wrapper around standard pip installs to ensure that a package and it's dependencies are safe before installing. This action preemptively checks a package and only imports if no vulnerabilities are found. It can be used with a base package (i.e. requests), or with a package pinned to an exact version (i.e. requests==2.21.0). It also supports importing a requirements.txt style, the pip equivalent of pip install -r <file>.

$ ochrona --install <package_name>|<requirements.txt>

stdin Support

Ochrona supports supplying dependencies via stdin and can accept a PEP-508 complaint (i.e. requirements.txt) formated string, or a single dependency. Single dependencies can be supplied as the first argument or piped.

Single dependency via stdin

$ ochrona urllib3==1.26.4
$ echo "urllib3==1.26.4" | ochrona

Multi-dependency via stdin

$ pip freeze | ochrona
$ pipenv lock -r | ochrona
$ cat requirements.txt | ochrona

Docker Support

Ochrona can be run via Docker. This is useful for the paranoid who may worry that an installed module could have modified the Python package namespace and allow malicious packages to bypass Ochrona's security checks. We've added this support in response to CVE-2020-5252 which was disclosed prior to Ochrona and affects several other similar tools.

Dockerized Ochrona

$ pip freeze | docker run -i --rm ochrona/ochrona ochrona

Dockerized Ochrona with environment variables

$ pip freeze | docker run -i -e OCHRONA_IGNORED_VULNS=requests --rm ochrona/ochrona ochrona

Output Formats

Ochrona supports several built in output options include a BASIC and FULL plaintext reports, a Junit style XML report, a JSON style report for incorporating with other tools, and and HTML summarized report.



XML (Junit)





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