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The Python library behind great charms

Project description

The Operator Framework

The Operator Framework provides a simple, lightweight, and powerful way of writing Juju charms, the best way to encapsulate operational experience in code.

The framework will help you to:

  • model the integration of your services
  • manage the lifecycle of your application
  • create reusable and scalable components
  • keep your code simple and readable

Getting Started

Charms written using the operator framework are just Python code. The intention is for it to feel very natural for somebody used to coding in Python, and reasonably easy to pick up for somebody who might be a domain expert but not necessarily a pythonista themselves.

The dependencies of the operator framework are kept as minimal as possible; currently that's Python 3.5 or greater, and PyYAML (both are included by default in Ubuntu's cloud images from 16.04 on).

A Quick Introduction

Operator framework charms are just Python code. The entry point to your charm is a particular Python file. It could be anything that makes sense to your project, but let's assume this is src/ This file must be executable (and it must have the appropriate shebang line).

You need the usual metadata.yaml and (probably) config.yaml files, and a requirements.txt for any Python dependencies. In other words, your project might look like this:

├── config.yaml
├── metadata.yaml
├── requirements.txt
└── src/

src/ here is the entry point to your charm code. At a minimum, it needs to define a subclass of CharmBase and pass that into the framework's main function:

from ops.charm import CharmBase
from ops.main import main

class MyCharm(CharmBase):
    def __init__(self, *args):
        self.framework.observe(self.on.start, self.on_start)

    def on_start(self, event):
        # Handle the start event here.

if __name__ == "__main__":

That should be enough for you to be able to run

$ charmcraft build
Done, charm left in 'my-charm.charm'
$ juju deploy my-charm.charm

🛈 More information on charmcraft can also be found on its github page.

Happy charming!

Testing your charms

The operator framework provides a testing harness, so that you can test that your charm does the right thing when presented with different scenarios, without having to have a full deployment to do so. pydoc3 ops.testing has the details for that, including this example:

harness = Harness(MyCharm)
# Do initial setup here
relation_id = harness.add_relation('db', 'postgresql')
# Now instantiate the charm to see events as the model changes
harness.add_relation_unit(relation_id, 'postgresql/0')
harness.update_relation_data(relation_id, 'postgresql/0', {'key': 'val'})
# Check that charm has properly handled the relation_joined event for postgresql/0
self.assertEqual(harness.charm. ...)

Talk to us

If you need help, have ideas, or would just like to chat with us, reach out on IRC: we're in #smooth-operator on freenode (or try the webchat).

We also pay attention to Juju's discourse; most discussion at this stage is on IRC, however.

You can also deep dive into the API docs if that's your thing.

Operator Framework development

If you want to work in the framework itself you will need Python >= 3.5 and the dependencies declared in requirements-dev.txt installed in your system. Or you can use a virtualenv:

virtualenv --python=python3 env
source env/bin/activate
pip install -r requirements-dev.txt

Then you can try ./run_tests, it should all go green.

If you want to build the documentation you'll need the requirements from docs/requirements.txt, or in your virtualenv

pip install -r docs/requirements.txt

and then you can run ./build_docs.

Project details

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