A set that remembers its order, and allows looking up its items by their index in that order.
An OrderedSet is a mutable data structure that is a hybrid of a list and a set. It remembers the order of its entries, and every entry has an index number that can be looked up.
An OrderedSet is created and used like a set:
>>> from ordered_set import OrderedSet >>> letters = OrderedSet('abracadabra') >>> letters OrderedSet(['a', 'b', 'r', 'c', 'd']) >>> 'r' in letters True
It is efficient to find the index of an entry in an OrderedSet, or find an
entry by its index. To help with this use case, the
.add() method returns
the index of the added item, whether it was already in the set or not.
>>> letters.index('r') 2 >>> letters 'r' >>> letters.add('r') 2 >>> letters.add('x') 5
OrderedSets implement the union (
|), intersection (
&), and difference (
operators like sets do.
>>> letters |= OrderedSet('shazam') >>> letters OrderedSet(['a', 'b', 'r', 'c', 'd', 'x', 's', 'h', 'z', 'm']) >>> letters & set('aeiou') OrderedSet(['a']) >>> letters -= 'abcd' >>> letters OrderedSet(['r', 'x', 's', 'h', 'z', 'm'])
index() methods have been extended to accept any
iterable except a string, returning a list, to perform NumPy-like "fancy
>>> letters = OrderedSet('abracadabra') >>> letters[[0, 2, 3]] ['a', 'r', 'c'] >>> letters.index(['a', 'r', 'c']) [0, 2, 3]
__setstate__ so it can be pickled,
and implements the abstract base classes
OrderedSet can be used as a generic collection type, similar to the collections
typing module like List, Dict, and Set. For example, you can annotate
a variable as having the type
OrderedSet in data science applications
An OrderedSet can be used as a bi-directional mapping between a sparse vocabulary and dense index numbers. As of version 3.1, it accepts NumPy arrays of index numbers as well as lists.
This combination of features makes OrderedSet a simple implementation of many
of the things that
pandas.Index is used for, and many of its operations are
faster than the equivalent pandas operations.
For further compatibility with pandas.Index,
get_loc (the pandas method for
looking up a single index) and
get_indexer (the pandas method for fancy
indexing in reverse) are both aliases for
index (which handles both cases
OrderedSet was implemented by Robyn Speer. Jon Crall contributed changes and tests to make it fit the Python set API. Roman Inflianskas added the original type annotations.
The original implementation of OrderedSet was a recipe posted to ActiveState Recipes by Raymond Hettiger, released under the MIT license.
Hettiger's implementation kept its content in a doubly-linked list referenced by a dict. As a result, looking up an item by its index was an O(N) operation, while deletion was O(1).
This version makes different trade-offs for the sake of efficient lookups. Its content is a standard Python list instead of a doubly-linked list. This provides O(1) lookups by index at the expense of O(N) deletion, as well as slightly faster iteration.
In Python 3.6 and later, the built-in
dict type is inherently ordered. If you
ignore the dictionary values, that also gives you a simple ordered set, with
fast O(1) insertion, deletion, iteration and membership testing. However,
does not provide the list-like random access features of OrderedSet. You
would have to convert it to a list in O(N) to look up the index of an entry or
look up an entry by its index.
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