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Pandas Mapper

Project description

pandas-mapper

The pandas-mapper is a Python pacckage that provides a concise syntax for applying mapping transformations to Pandas Dataframes commonly required for ETL workflows. Possibly the biggest benefit to using pandas-mapper over the native pandas.Dataframe.apply method is a robust error handling mechanism. Instead of raising an error, mapping errors can be redirected to an errors Dataframe, which can then be handled by the user as needed.

Getting started

To get started, install pandas-mapper in your project using pip

pip install pandas-mapper

and then use it your project by importing the package

import pandas_mapper

When you import this package in your project, it adds the mapping method to Pandas dataframe objects. Suppose you had a dataframe containing integers and the English word for the integer and you want to translate the names to Spanish.

import pandas as pd
import pandas_mapper

df = pd.DataFrame(
    {
        'num': [1, 2, 3],
        'name': ['one', 'two', 'three'],
        'num_name': ['1-one', '2-two', '3-three']
    }
)
num name num_name
1 one 1-one
2 two 2-two
3 three 3-three

A stupidly-simple translation method might be

def translate(val):
    if val == 1:
        return 'uno'
    elif val == 2:
        return 'dos'
    elif val == 3:
        return 'tres'
    else:
        raise ValueError('Unknown translation: {}'.format(val))

The translation can be accomplished using pandas-mapper via

mapper = df.mapping([('num', 'translated', translate)])
translated_df = mapper.mapped

The first argument of the mapping method is a list of tuples, where the first element of the tuple is the source column(s), the second element is the target column(s), and the (optional) third element is the transform. In this example, we only have one map in the list, so the result is a dataframe with a single column:

translated
uno
dos
tres

Handling errors

Our stupidly-simple translation will raise an error if we supply it with the number 4. Suppose we added another record with the number 4 to our df defined above. If we apply the same mapping as above, pandas-mapper will raise a ValueError. However, if we supply the mapping method with the on_error='redirect' option via

mapper = df.mapping([('num', 'translated', translate)], on_error='redirect')
translated_df = mapper.mapped
translation_errors_df = mapper.errors

then we get two dataframes, one with the translated records (mapper.mapped):

translated
uno
dos
tres

and another with the error records (mapper.errors):

num name num_name errror
4 four 4-four {'msg': 'ValueError(4): Unknown translation: 4...

Mapping cardinalities

Each map can be defined with 0 or more sources, 0 or more targets, and 0 or 1 transform functions. The expected arguments and return values of the transform function is depenedent on the number of source and target columns used.

  • If the mapping has a single source and single target columns, then the transform function should accept a single value and return a single value.
  • If the mapping involves multiple source columns, then the function should accept a single dict-like object where the keys are the names of the source columns. In this case, if the mapping has a single target, then the retun value of the transform function should contain a single value. However, if the mapping has multiple targets, then the return value should be the same dict-like object that was passed to the function, with the target-column keys of that object have been modified in place by the function.
  • If the mapping has no source columns, then the transform can either be a constant (e.g., the integer 5), or a function that accepts no arguments but returns a value (which may be useful if you want to use a random number generator).

Examples

Zero-to-one

Zero-to-one mappings can be used to set a column to a constant:

df.mapping([None, 'five', transform=5])

Or defined by some function that generates output:

import random
df.mapping([(None, 'rando', random.random)]).mapped

One-to-one

Our translation function defined above is an example of a one-to-one transform:

df.mapping([('num', 'translated', translate)])

Many-to-one

Concatenation is an example of a many-to-one operation:

df.mapping([(['num', 'name'], 'num-name', lambda row: '-'.join(row.apply(str)))])

Many-to-Many

Deconcatenation is an example of a one-to-many operation. One-to-many operations require the same method signature as many-to-many:

def deconcatenate(row):
    split_values = row['num_name'].split('-')
    row[num'] = split_values[0]
    row[name'] = split_values[1]
    return row

df.mapping([('num_name', ['num', 'name'], deconcatenate)])

Other options

The mapping method also supports an inplace option, which is False by default. This will modify the dataframe in place, bringing along all columns that it started with. For example:

df.mapping([('num', 'translated', translate)], inplace=True).mapped
num name num_name translated
1 one 1-one uno
2 two 2-two dos
3 three 3-three tres

Modifying the dataframe inplace can be useful when you need to chain together transformations, like when the output of one map in needed as the input for another map.

Contributor Setup

Download and install the docker community edition that is appropriate for your host os.

We use invoke to setup and control the environment for developing and testing this project. This will require that you install invoke in your host OS. You may be able to get away with just running pip install invoke. However, the recommended method is to download and install miniconda. Then, create a project-specific environment and install invoke in this environment:

conda create --name pandas-mapper python=3.6
conda activate pandas-mapper
pip install invoke

Note: if you use miniconda, you will have to run conda activate pandas-mapper each time you start a new terminal session.

Once invoke is installed, you can build the docker containers to use the dev/test environment

inv build

Spin up the dev/test environment via

inv up --jupyter-port=8892

Run the test suite via

inv test

Project details


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