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The ergonomic and hermetic software build system for Python, Java, Scala, Go, and Shell. Pants lets you fearlessly scale up your codebase.

Project description

Pants is an Apache2 licensed build tool written in Python and Rust.

The latest documentation can be found at

2.15.x Release Series

What's New

Pants 2.15 brings support for several new features:


Pants now supports alternate execution "environments" for build actions. These "environments" can be explicitly configured as desired via several new target types (including having multiple environments of the same type). The new environment field on many targets tells Pants which environment to use for a particular target.

Pants previously supported local execution (which is now configured by the local_environment target type) and remote execution via the Remote Execution API (which is now configured by the remote_environment target type).

New in Pants 2.15 is support for executing build actions within a Docker container configured via the docker_environment target type.

See the Environments documentation for more information.

Test Batching

./pants test now supports batching compatible tests together so that they execute in the same process. This can improve performance of test execution by sharing test environment setup across multiple test files, but must be balanced against the impact on caching and concurrency.

The Python backend is the first user of the test batching support.

New goal: fix

The fix goal has been added to run tools which generally will perform more invasive changes on your source files than the fmt goal. The fmt goal remains for tools which merely format code without making semantic changes.



Several changes have been made to the Python backend:

  • Support for the new Environments feature. Relevant targets now have a new environment field to configure which environment to use for that target.
  • Batched execution of pytest tests.
  • Support for lcov coverage format.
  • Support for pyright typechecking.
  • Python lockfiles are now represented in the build graph via synthetic targets.
  • Upgrades to default version of several tools including coverage and Flake8.


The Go backend received several changes including:

  • Basic support for Cgo
  • Coverage reports can be generated in HTML and not just the raw data file used by go tool cover.
  • Support for the golangci-lint linter.
  • Support for multiple go_mod targets in same repository.
  • A new go-generate custom goal to run go generate on any //go:generate instructions in a package.
  • $GOROOT/bin is now prepended to PATH when running tests to enable them to easily find the go binary for the Go toolchain in use.

Note: Due to certain changes in Go v1.20, Pants 2.15.x and earlier Pants versions will not work with Go v1.20 and later releases. Instead, use Pants v2.16.x or later Pants versions to support Go v1.20 and later releases.

New: OpenAPI

The new OpenAPI backend provides support for linting OpenAPI API specifications using the spectral tool and generating Java code from the OpenAPI specifications.

Enable the pants.backend.experimental.openapi backend for base OpenAPI support, the pants.backend.experimental.openapi.lint.spectral backend for linting support, and the backend for Java code generation support.

Plugin API changes

Several changes were made to the Plugin API including the changes highlighted below. Read the Plugin upgrade guide for a full description of the changes highlighted below (as well as other changes not highlighted here), including how to migrate existing plugins.

Formatters / Linters

The schema used for formatters and linters has been changed in order to allow for formatters and linters which do not require a target on which to operate. See the applicable section of the Plugin upgrade guide for the specific changes.

Batched Tests

The plugin API used by the test goal has been changed significantly to support the explicit batching of tests. See the applicable section of the Plugin upgrade guide for the specific changes.

Synthetic Targets

Plugins may now add "synthetic targets" to the build graph to create freestanding targets programmatically. These synthetic targets can also be generator targets in order to further create generated targets. See the plugin documentation for the Synthetic Targets API for more information.

2.15.1rc2 (Apr 23, 2023)

Bug Fixes

  • The OverridesField.compute_value() must return a hashable value. (Cherry-pick of #18787) (#18798)

  • Use address as stable key when batching field sets in lint/test (Cherry-pick of #18725) (#18733)

  • Fix repr for Fields that don't define default. (Cherry-pick of #18719) (#18723)

  • Fix JVM resource JAR creation on older Mac OSes (Cherry-pick of #18673) (#18675)


  • Jacob Floyd/Huon Wilson updates to team page (Cherry-pick of #18221) (#18795)

  • Remove defunct newsletter (Cherry-pick of #18355) (#18796)

  • Add Pylint post (Cherry-pick of #18079) (#18794)

  • Remove a python-specific tip from the general prereqs page. (Cherry-pick of #18637) (#18651)

2.15.1rc1 (Mar 31, 2023)

Bug fixes

  • Ensure that sandboxed processes exit before their sandboxes are clean… (#18641)

  • Plumb entire lockfile/internal only code through create_pex_from_targets (cherry-pick of #18622) (#18636)

  • Fix export-codgen with multiple output types from same input type (Cherry-pick of #18373) (#18377)

  • Improve debug information for docker auth, and expose an environment variable. (Cherry-pick of #18599) (#18603)


  • Fix ./pants -> pants in some docs and help strings. (cherrypick of #18596) (#18607)

2.15.1rc0 (Mar 24, 2023)

Bug fixes

  • Fail fast for attempts to use test --debug with a docker environment (Cherry-pick of #18560) (#18567)

  • Add support for Docker registry auth (Cherry-pick of #18541) (#18550)

  • Fix Poetry req synthesis for URLs with markers. (Cherry-pick of #18535) (#18537)

  • Preserve environment variables in pantsd to allow Docker auth. (Cherry-pick of #18465) (#18467)

  • Synthesized lockfile targets should never err on missing lockfiles. (Cherry-pick of #18406) (#18446)

  • go: skip go v1.20+ when searching for the GOROOT (#18429)


  • Some doc fixes suggested by users. (Cherry-pick of #18393) (#18394)

2.15.0 (Feb 24, 2023)

The first stable release of the series, with no changes since the previous rc!

2.15.0rc7 (Feb 22, 2023)

Bug fixes

  • Docker environment uses a volume for named caches (Cherry-pick of #18327) (#18337)

  • go: add backends which were missing from distribution (Cherrypick of #18312) (#18316)

  • Ensure that the pep-517 backend shim works on Python 2.7. (Cherry-pick of #18295) (#18300)

2.15.0rc6 (Feb 16, 2023)

New Features

  • Allow exporting codegenerated files/resources (Cherry-pick of #18236) (#18241)

Bug fixes

  • Fix bootstrap issue with __defaults__ and environments. (Cherry-pick of #18251) (#18262)

  • Upgrade to Lambdex 0.1.9 (Cherry-pick of #18257) (#18261)

  • Delete override of expected exe name for shfmt. (Cherry-pick of #18258) (#18259)

  • Allow breakpoints to be hit when run_in_sandbox is False (Cherry-pick of #18244) (#18245)


  • docs: add What's New section for 2.15.x release notes (#18226)

2.15.0rc5 (Feb 10, 2023)

Bug fixes

  • Fix published wheel RECORDs. (Cherry-pick of #18219) (#18220)

  • Always explicitly shutdown executors (Cherry-pick of #18216) (#18218)

  • Use EnvironmentAwarePackageRequest in many more contexts. (Cherry-pick of #18203) (#18206)

  • Have lambdex create a new output file. (Cherry-pick of #18200) (#18201)

2.15.0rc4 (Feb 07, 2023)

Bug fixes

  • Shutdown all threads as part of Scheduler shutdown (Cherry-pick of #18166) (#18188)

2.15.0rc3 (Feb 02, 2023)

New Features

  • Add environment= to experimental_shell_command. (Cherry-pick of #17575) (#18064)

Bug fixes

  • Add the environment field to most Python binary target types (Cherry-pick of #18144) (#18150)

  • Run pyupgrade until convergance (Cherry-pick of #18128) (#18130)

  • Make mypy cache per-repo (Cherry-pick of #18043) (#18061)

  • go: detect when go.sum needs additional entries filled in (Cherrypick of #17811) (#18118)

  • Explicitly use "python" ijson backend (cherry-pick of #17787) (#18077)

  • Fix caching of PATH lookups in remote execution (Cherry-pick of #18026) (#18062)


  • Document the new name. (Cherry-pick of #18137) (#18139)

  • Recommend checking the script in. (Cherry-pick of #18120) (#18134)

  • Change ./pants to pants in the docs (cherry-pick of #18121) (#18124)

  • docs: fix markdown inline code typo in a docstring (Cherry-pick of #18002) (#18103)

  • docs: add tutorials to get started writing plugins (Cherry-pick) (#18107)

  • docs: mention name clashing between custom goals and options when writing plugins (Cherry-pick of #17899) (#18105)

  • docs: tidy up Writing plugins : rules-api directory files (Cherry-pick of #17710) (#18102)

  • Document new pants launcher binary, aka scie-pants. (Cherry-pick of #18056) (#18075)

  • Docs: improve docs on handling option values in cli (Cherry-pick of #17506) (#18069)

  • Update and reorganize resource hub (#17922) (#18068)

  • Add Daniel Goldman and Darcy Shen to team page (Cherry-pick of #17921) (#18066)

  • Nudge more technical support toward GH Discussions (Cherry-pick of #17906) (#18065)

2.15.0rc2 (Jan 18, 2023)

New Features

  • Added support for discovering and patching pyright config files (cherry-pick of #17771) (#18030)

Bug fixes

  • Streamline local dist handling when running python sources. (Cherry-pick of #17742) (#18035)

  • Adds workunit for interactive processes. (Cherry-pick of #17544) (#17996)

  • Pyright should grab non-transitive dependencies and make them available in the sandbox (Cherry-pick of #17235) (#17980)

  • add skip_pyright field to python test targets (Cherry-pick of #17960) (#17968)

  • Do not load the BUILD file prelude (macros) in the bootstrap scheduler. (Cherry-pick of #17939) (#17941)


  • Document how to update the pants script. (Cherry-pick of #17976) (#17979)

2.15.0rc1 (Dec 26, 2022)

Bug fixes

  • scala: support scala v3 which has different compiler/library artifacts (Cherry pick of #17855) (#17866)

  • Restore support for :all: in only_binary/no_binary. (Cherry-pick of #17779) (#17784)

  • Test DebugAdapter requests, and fix issues (Cherry-pick of #17678) (#17768)

  • chdir in rule_runner.run_interactive_process (Cherry-pick of #17722) (#17765)


  • Run python sources with a VenvPex (Cherry-pick of #17700) (#17761)


  • Document batched pytest execution. (Cherry-pick of #17845) (#17853)

  • Tweak the docs about defaults. (Cherry-pick of #17829) (#17838)

2.15.0rc0 (Dec 08, 2022)

Bug fixes

  • More precise running workunit for processes executing remotely (Cherry-pick of #17719) (#17725)

  • Fix twine env vars propagation for publish goal. (Cherry-pick of #17650) (#17659)

  • Allow for run --debug-adapter to match breakpoints when source is running in a sandbox (Cherry-pick of #17566) (#17584)

  • Do not try to create "" output directory in CreateArchive (Cherry-pick of #17538) (#17548)


  • Fix broken docs links to manual build instructions (Cherry-pick of #17608) (#17610)

  • Update team pages for SJ and Dan! (Cherry-pick of #17534) (#17568)

  • Add Shantanu Kumar to Contributors list (Cherry-pick of #17579) (#17587)

2.15.0a1 (Nov 11, 2022)

New Features

  • A --resolve flag, to specify the resolves to export. (Cherry-pick of #17416) (#17461)

User API Changes

  • Deprecate the old export semantics. (Cherry-pick of #17465) (#17466)

Bug fixes

  • Fix memoization of CoarsenedTarget.closure (Cherry-pick of #17516) (#17518)

  • Support parsing targets from additional paths not containing BUILD files. (Cherry-pick of #17451) (#17513)

  • Ensure lockfile target exists before injecting a dependency to it. (Cherry-pick of #17365) (#17505)

  • Ensure correct eq/hash semantics for PythonArtifact. (Cherry-pick of #17484) (#17492)

  • Flip the default for pull on docker_image to False (Cherry-pick of #17459) (#17460)

  • Isolate config seed values from the DEFAULT section. (Cherry-pick of #17474) (#17485)

  • Fix poorly understood stdout redirection issue. (Cherry-pick of #17471) (#17473)

  • Fix propagation of the remote-execution-append-only-caches path (Cherry-pick of #17469) (#17472)

  • Fix dep inference from shuint2_tests targets. (Cherry-pick of #17417) (#17422)

  • Fix EnvironmentName used in test runs (Cherry-pick of #17412) (#17415)

  • Restore debug hints for test execution (Cherry-pick of #17406) (#17407)


  • Skip loading of local cache data when possible (Cherry-pick of #17495) (#17524)

  • Symlink site-packages into pylint venvs when possible. (Cherry-pick of #17488) (#17491)

  • Filter coarsened targets to only those that are relevant in pylint runner rule (Cherry-pick of #17487) (#17490)


  • Fix line breaks in a docs page. (Cherry-pick of #17527) (#17528)

  • Clarify how __defaults__ apply to target generators. (Cherry-pick of #17493) (#17499)

  • Fix version templating in vcs_version docs (Cherry-pick of #17423) (#17425)

2.15.0a0 (Oct 28, 2022)

New Features

  • Add support for batched pytest execution (#17385)

  • Add a batch_size parameter to the test subsystem. (#17361)

  • Replace skip placeholders with real SkipOptions in test subsystems. (#17360)

Plugin API Changes

  • Refactor optional typing in generic partitioning utils. (#17371)

  • Refactor plumbing for test goal to support batched tests. (#17134)

  • Rework partitioning types for more flexibility. (#17288)

Bug fixes

  • Ensure PATH to shims are absolute for the protobuf buf linter. (#17367)

  • Include process execution strategy in Process cache key (#17340)

  • Fix use of --shard with --debug/--debug-adapter in test. (#17321)

  • go: properly handle xtest packages when building (#17307)

  • Retry the streaming portion of downloads, as well as the setup. (#17298)


  • Implement cancellation of remote processes (#17341)


  • Document Synthetic Targets API.(#17330)

  • Initial documentation for Environments (#17096)

  • Add 2.14 blog post link to changelog page. (#17381)

  • Document the existence of the init-pants action. (#17378)

  • Add a section about test to plugin API guide. (#17362)

  • Revise the error message associated with OOM-killed events (#17373)

  • Fix linebreak issues in the targets docs page. (#17364)

  • Fix a nit in the Getting Help docs. (#17295)

2.15.0.dev5 (Oct 19, 2022)

New Features

  • Synthesize targets for Python lockfiles (#17097)

  • Refactor shunit2 into a proper subsystem. (#17257)

  • Add lcov support (#17256)

  • New API to create synthetic targets. (#16998)

  • Support custom post renderers in Helm deployments (#17215)

  • Add a fix goal (#17202)

  • Add basic support for pyright typechecking (#17163)

User API Changes

  • Upgrade Pex to 2.1.111. (#17267)

  • Upgrade the Pants-provided coverage to version 6.5.X (#17254)

  • Upgrade default Flake8 version to 5.0 (#17226)

  • Add Snowflake connector to module mapping (#17165)

  • Always include relevant params in workunit descriptions, and include descriptions in traces by default (#17119)

Plugin API Changes

  • Rename SubPartition to Batch in partitioning types. (#17263)

  • Make fmt/lint result types less boilerplate-y (#17192)

  • Begin migration to explicitly scoped environments (#17155)

Bug fixes

  • Fix remote execution not working with remote caching and eager fetch mode (#17272)

  • Remote cache reads are resilient to remote execution writing to the cache (#17195)

  • Adjust ensure_remote_has_recursive to succeed if content only exists remotely (#17204)

  • Declaring Javascript, Prettier, and Pyright backends/plugins in BUILD (#17190)

  • Set PEX_ROOT for export post-processing command. (#17177)

  • Fix macros depending on macros from other files (#17183)

  • go/gofmt: filter out non-go files from file list (#17171)

  • Fix dep inference with empty lines in multiline imports. (#17284)


  • Change fmt/lint/check docs with latest changes (#17133)

  • Add CI talk to resources (#17238)

2.15.0.dev4 (Oct 07, 2022)

New Features

  • Optionally export venvs via symlink into the pex_root. (#17130)

  • go: add cgo support for tailor (#17087)

User API Changes

  • Upgrade Pex to 2.1.108. (#17112)

Plugin API Changes

  • Switch to .tool_subsystem (#17103)

  • Rename/Refactor style_request to better capture intent. (#17084)

Bug fixes

  • Move pyoxidized pants binary out of the main source tree (#16703)


  • Generate help info about target_field_name to the docsite. (#17138)

  • Add Aiven to user list. (#17131)

  • Fix bsp-groups.toml example in documentation (#17125)

  • Update maintainer job description (#17022)

2.15.0.dev3 (Oct 03, 2022)

New Features

  • Add venv_site_packages_copies field to pex_binary (#17046)

  • Add golangci-lint to go backend (#16994)

  • go: add go-generate goal to run go generate on a package (#16909)

  • Support Java codegen for the OpenAPI backend (#16862)

  • go: render coverage reports as HTML (#16995)

  • Environment-aware subsystems (#16965)

  • Environment sensitive options (#16840)

  • Add retries to NetDownload intrinsic. (#16798)

  • go: add basic support for cgo (#16413)

  • Add support for add-trailing-comma tool (#16776)

User API Changes

  • Upgrade Pex to 2.1.107. (#17081)

  • Restore the deprecated filter goal indefinitely (#17027)

Plugin API Changes

  • Improve usability of the --engine-visualize-to option (#17080)

  • Change fmt plugin schema to allow for targetless formatters (#16980)

  • Renames SubsystemRule() to Subsystem.rules() (#16954)

  • Introduce new schema for lint plugins (#16735)

  • Environment, EnvironmentRequest, and CompleteEnvironment now include Vars in the name (#16851)

  • MockGet expects input_types kwarg, not input_type (#16839)

Bug fixes

  • Fix dirtying of uncacheable nodes (#17079)

  • Make interpreter path expansion cache-correct (#17051)

  • Add python 3.10 to acceptable GCF runtimes (#17028)

  • Don't cache VCS version outside the current pants session. (#17017)

  • Fix Pantsd not properly invalidating when CPPFLAGS and LDFLAGS change (#17009)

  • Add parametrize() support for __defaults__. (#16977)

  • go: prepend $GOROOT/bin to PATH for tests (#16993)

  • Fix for hang with redirected stdio. (#16970)

  • Fix invalid field error message for parametrized fields. (#16911)

  • Fix venv re-population race. (#16931)

  • wait for killed nailgun processes. (#16924)

  • remove override of register_plugin_field (#16919)

  • Only request source roots for PEP-517 deps that belong on the syspath (#16903)

  • Upgrade javaparser, and use a permissive language level to support parsing more code (#16896)

  • docker: upgrade bollard crate for bug fix (#16850)

  • Preserve stdio when a local process times out. (#16841)


  • Add an optional speculation delay when using a remote cache (#16922)

  • Only use remote cache when cache scope is Always or Successful (#16920)


  • Fix Helm K8S parser help message (#17091)

  • Update pytest-xdist docs. (#17071)

  • Fix the [python-bootstrap].search_path option name in the docs. (#17063)

  • Add Doron Somech's proudest contribution (#17029)

  • improve remote cache logging for hit or miss (#16975)

  • Remove bad linebreaks from python-run-goal page. (#16976)

  • Update changelog on docsite with 2.13, 2.14 links (#16918)

  • Add Marcelo to team page, move Josh Reed to Maintainer (#16826)

  • Don't mention a specific version in the manual install instructions. (#16888)

2.15.0.dev2 (Sep 09, 2022)

New Features

  • Force colors from mypy always, strip in pants when --no-colors (#16586)

  • Add OpenAPI backend (#16199)

  • go: analyze imports paths by module to enable multiple go_mod targets (#16386)

Bug fixes

  • docker: capture output once after container exits (#16783)

  • docker: lazily initialize docker connection (#16779)


  • Add IBM, Coinbase, and Astranis case studies (#16805)

  • Fix broken shortlinks that invoked "docs:" instead of "doc:" (#16804)

  • Add Brand24 to user list. (#16793)

2.15.0.dev1 (Sep 04, 2022)

New Features

  • go: support placing resource files in packages (and not just embedding) (#16688)

  • "naive" docker command runner (#16670)

  • Adds binary_name field to PyOxidizer support (#16696)

Plugin API Changes

  • The environment to use becomes a context-specific parameter (#16721)

  • Deprecate Platform.current in favor of requesting an injected Platform (#16765)

  • Allow @unions to declare additional types which are provided to implementers (#16717)

  • Deprecate remote_auth_plugin option - plugins can use entry points now. (#16691)

Bug fixes

  • Add support for inferring dependencies used in type context bounds (#16709)

  • Resolve properly provided symbol names for types defined at top level package (#16690)

  • Include type bound constraints in consumed symbols during Scala inference (#16692)

  • Make experimental_shell_command deterministic (#16675)


  • List commercial Pants services that optionally supplement community's extensive free tier (#16706)

  • In python resource example, use importlib.resources to read assets (#16695)

  • Welcome community members to consider joining team (#16681)

2.15.0.dev0 (Aug 29, 2022)

New Features

  • Add support for string interpolation in Helm deployments (#16611)

  • Add --squash and --pull options support for docker build (#16607)

  • Support Pex's --path-mapping with lockfiles for better local requirement support (#16584)

  • [experimental] adds pants_oxidized_experimental target, creating a standalone binary distribution for Pants (#16484)

User API Changes

  • Remove deprecated [python].only_binary, [python].no_binary, and [python].tailor_ignore_solitary_init_files (#16638)

  • Remove deprecated [python].lockfile_generator and deprecate poetry subsystem (used previously for lockfile generation) (#16633)

  • Remove deprecated use_deprecated_directory_cli_args_semantics option (#16630)

Plugin API Changes

  • Add support for passing multiple input params to a @rule Get (#16668)

  • Remove deprecated matches_filespec and get_git functions (#16629)

  • Remove unnecessary type parameter from Get (#16634)

Bug fixes

  • Fix dirtying of uncacheable nodes (#17079)

  • Make FilespecMatcher case-sensitive (#16673)

  • Ensure the sandbox distdir exists when creating dists via PEP517. (#16647)


  • Implement a batched local lookup for missing fingerprints. (#16627)

  • Optimize CreateDigest implementation. (#16617)


  • Create page of Pants team members and proudest contribs (#16676)

  • Fix example BSP groups file. (#16649)

  • Clarify wording for --skip options (#16622)

  • Fix ./pants help docs on command line specs (#16616)

  • Mention team meetings as a Contributor permission (#16543)

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