Command line utility to show dependency tree of packages
pipdeptree is a command line utility for displaying the python packages installed in an virtualenv in form of a dependency tree. Since pip freeze shows all dependencies as a flat list, finding out which are the top level packages and which packages do they depend on requires some effort. It can also be tedious to resolve conflicting dependencies because pip doesn’t yet have true dependency resolution (more on this later). This utility tries to solve these problem.
To some extent, this tool is inspired by lein deps :tree command of Leiningen.
$ pip install pipdeptree
Usage and examples
To give you a brief idea, here is the output of pipdeptree compared with pip freeze:
$ pip freeze Flask==0.10.1 Flask-Script==0.6.6 Jinja2==2.7.2 -e email@example.com:naiquevin/lookupy.git@cdbe30c160e1c29802df75e145ea4ad903c05386#egg=Lookupy-master Mako==0.9.1 MarkupSafe==0.18 SQLAlchemy==0.9.1 Werkzeug==0.9.4 alembic==0.6.2 argparse==1.2.1 ipython==2.0.0 itsdangerous==0.23 psycopg2==2.5.2 redis==2.9.1 slugify==0.0.1 wsgiref==0.1.2
And now see what pipdeptree outputs,
$ pipdeptree Warning!!! Possible confusing dependencies found: * Mako==0.9.1 -> MarkupSafe [required: >=0.9.2, installed: 0.18] Jinja2==2.7.2 -> MarkupSafe [installed: 0.18] ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Lookupy==0.1 wsgiref==0.1.2 argparse==1.2.1 psycopg2==2.5.2 Flask-Script==0.6.6 - Flask [installed: 0.10.1] - Werkzeug [required: >=0.7, installed: 0.9.4] - Jinja2 [required: >=2.4, installed: 2.7.2] - MarkupSafe [installed: 0.18] - itsdangerous [required: >=0.21, installed: 0.23] alembic==0.6.2 - SQLAlchemy [required: >=0.7.3, installed: 0.9.1] - Mako [installed: 0.9.1] - MarkupSafe [required: >=0.9.2, installed: 0.18] ipython==2.0.0 slugify==0.0.1 redis==2.9.1
Is it possible to find out why a particular package is installed?
New in ver. 0.5.0
Yes, there’s a –reverse (or simply -r) flag for this. To find out what all packages require paricular package(s), it can be combined with –packages flag as follows:
$ python pipdeptree.py --reverse --packages itsdangerous,gnureadline --nowarn gnureadline==6.3.3 - ipython==2.0.0 [requires: gnureadline] itsdangerous==0.24 - Flask==0.10.1 [requires: itsdangerous>=0.21] - Flask-Script==0.6.6 [requires: Flask]
What’s with the warning about confusing dependencies?
As seen in the above output, pipdeptree by default warns about possible confusing dependencies. Any package that’s specified as a dependency of multiple packages with a different version is considered as a possible confusing dependency. This is helpful because pip doesn’t have true dependency resolution yet. The warning is printed to stderr instead of stdout and it can be completely disabled by using the --nowarn flag.
Warnings about circular dependencies
In case any of the packages have circular dependencies (eg. package A depending upon package B and package B depending upon package A), then pipdeptree will print warnings about that as well.
$ pipdeptree Warning!!! Cyclic dependencies found: - CircularDependencyA => CircularDependencyB => CircularDependencyA - CircularDependencyB => CircularDependencyA => CircularDependencyB ------------------------------------------------------------------------ wsgiref==0.1.2 argparse==1.2.1
As with the confusing dependencies warnings, these are printed to stderr and can be disabled using the --nowarn flag.
Using pipdeptree to write requirements.txt file
If you wish to track only the top level packages in your requirements.txt file, it’s possible to do so using pipdeptree by grep-ing only the top-level lines from the output,
$ pipdeptree | grep -P '^\w+' Lookupy==0.1 wsgiref==0.1.2 argparse==1.2.1 psycopg2==2.5.2 Flask-Script==0.6.6 alembic==0.6.2 ipython==2.0.0 slugify==0.0.1 redis==2.9.1
There is a problem here though. The output doesn’t mention anything about Lookupy being installed as an editable package (refer to the output of pip freeze above) and information about it’s source is lost. To fix this, pipdeptree must be run with a -f or --freeze flag.
$ pipdeptree -f --nowarn | grep -P '^[\w0-9\-=.]+' -e firstname.lastname@example.org:naiquevin/lookupy.git@cdbe30c160e1c29802df75e145ea4ad903c05386#egg=Lookupy-master wsgiref==0.1.2 argparse==1.2.1 psycopg2==2.5.2 Flask-Script==0.6.6 alembic==0.6.2 ipython==2.0.0 slugify==0.0.1 redis==2.9.1 $ pipdeptree -f --nowarn | grep -P '^[\w0-9\-=.]+' > requirements.txt
The freeze flag will also not output the hyphens for child dependencies, so you could dump the complete output of pipdeptree -f to the requirements.txt file making the file human-friendly (due to indentations) as well as pip-friendly. (Take care of duplicate dependencies though)
Using pipdeptree with external tools
New in ver. 0.5.0
It’s also possible to have pipdeptree output json representation of the dependency tree so that it may be used as input to other external tools.
$ python pipdeptree.py --json
usage: pipdeptree.py [-h] [-f] [-a] [-l] [-w] [-r] [-p PACKAGES] [-j] Dependency tree of the installed python packages optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit -f, --freeze Print names so as to write freeze files -a, --all list all deps at top level -l, --local-only If in a virtualenv that has global access donot show globally installed packages -w, --nowarn Inhibit warnings about possibly confusing packages -r, --reverse Shows the dependency tree in the reverse fasion ie. the sub-dependencies are listed with the list of packages that need them under them. -p PACKAGES, --packages PACKAGES Comma separated list of select packages to show in the output. If set, --all will be ignored. -j, --json Display dependency tree as json. This will yield "raw" output that may be used by external tools. This option overrides all other options.
- To work with packages installed inside a virtualenv, pipdeptree also needs to be installed in the same virtualenv even if it’s already installed globally.
- One thing you might have noticed already is that flask is shown as a dependency of flask-script, which although correct, sounds a bit odd. flask-script is being used here because we are using flask and not the other way around. Same with sqlalchemy and alembic. I haven’t yet thought about a possible solution to this! (May be if libs that are “extensions” could be distinguished from the ones that are “dependencies”. Suggestions are welcome.)
Runnings Tests (for contributors)
Tests can be run against all version of python using tox as follows:
$ make test-tox
This assumes that you have python versions 2.6, 2.7, 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4 installed on your machine. (See more: tox.ini)
Or if you don’t want to install all the versions of python but want to run tests quickly against Python2.7 only:
$ make test
Tests require some virtualenvs to be created, so another assumption is that you have virtualenv installed.
Before pushing the code or sending pull requests it’s recommended to run make test-tox once so that tests are run on all environments.
(See more: Makefile)
MIT (See LICENSE)
Release history Release notifications
Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.
|Filename, size||File type||Python version||Upload date||Hashes|
|Filename, size pipdeptree-0.5.0-py2-none-any.whl (12.5 kB)||File type Wheel||Python version 2.7||Upload date||Hashes View hashes|
|Filename, size pipdeptree-0.5.0.tar.gz (10.0 kB)||File type Source||Python version None||Upload date||Hashes View hashes|
Hashes for pipdeptree-0.5.0-py2-none-any.whl