Python Development Workflow for Humans.
Pipenv — the officially recommended Python packaging tool from Python.org, free (as in freedom).
Pipenv is a tool that aims to bring the best of all packaging worlds (bundler, composer, npm, cargo, yarn, etc.) to the Python world. Windows is a first–class citizen, in our world.
It automatically creates and manages a virtualenv for your projects, as well as adds/removes packages from your Pipfile as you install/uninstall packages. It also generates the ever–important Pipfile.lock, which is used to produce deterministic builds.
The problems that Pipenv seeks to solve are multi-faceted:
- You no longer need to use pip and virtualenv separately. They work together.
- Managing a requirements.txt file can be problematic, so Pipenv uses the upcoming Pipfile and Pipfile.lock instead, which is superior for basic use cases.
- Hashes are used everywhere, always. Security. Automatically expose security vulnerabilities.
- Give you insight into your dependency graph (e.g. $ pipenv graph).
- Streamline development workflow by loading .env files.
$ pip install pipenv
Or if you are on macOS, you can install Pipenv via Homebrew with:
$ brew install pipenv
☤ User Testimonials
- Jannis Leidel, former pip maintainer—
- Pipenv is the porcelain I always wanted to build for pip. It fits my brain and mostly replaces virtualenvwrapper and manual pip calls for me. Use it.
- Justin Myles Holmes—
- Pipenv is finally an abstraction meant to engage the mind instead of merely the filesystem.
- Isaac Sanders—
- Pipenv is literally the best thing about my day today. Thanks, Kenneth!
- Enables truly deterministic builds, while easily specifying only what you want.
- Generates and checks file hashes for locked dependencies.
- Automatically install required Pythons, if pyenv is available.
- Automatically finds your project home, recursively, by looking for a Pipfile.
- Automatically generates a Pipfile, if one doesn’t exist.
- Automatically creates a virtualenv in a standard location.
- Automatically adds/removes packages to a Pipfile when they are un/installed.
- Automatically loads .env files, if they exist.
The main commands are install, uninstall, and lock, which generates a Pipfile.lock. These are intended to replace $ pip install usage, as well as manual virtualenv management (to activate a virtualenv, run $ pipenv shell).
- A virtualenv will automatically be created, when one doesn’t exist.
- When no parameters are passed to install, all packages [packages] specified will be installed.
- To initialize a Python 3 virtual environment, run $ pipenv --three.
- To initialize a Python 2 virtual environment, run $ pipenv --two.
- Otherwise, whatever virtualenv defaults to will be the default.
- shell will spawn a shell with the virtualenv activated.
- run will run a given command from the virtualenv, with any arguments forwarded (e.g. $ pipenv run python).
- check asserts that PEP 508 requirements are being met by the current environment.
- graph will print a pretty graph of all your installed dependencies.
For example, with fish, put this in your ~/.config/fish/completions/pipenv.fish:
eval (pipenv --completion)
Alternatively, with bash, put this in your .bashrc or .bash_profile:
eval "$(pipenv --completion)"
Magic shell completions are now enabled! There is also a fish plugin, which will automatically activate your subshells for you!
Fish is the best shell. You should use it.
$ pipenv Usage: pipenv [OPTIONS] COMMAND [ARGS]... Options: --update Update Pipenv & pip to latest. --where Output project home information. --venv Output virtualenv information. --py Output Python interpreter information. --envs Output Environment Variable options. --rm Remove the virtualenv. --bare Minimal output. --completion Output completion (to be eval'd). --man Display manpage. --three / --two Use Python 3/2 when creating virtualenv. --python TEXT Specify which version of Python virtualenv should use. --site-packages Enable site-packages for the virtualenv. --jumbotron An easter egg, effectively. --version Show the version and exit. -h, --help Show this message and exit. Usage Examples: Create a new project using Python 3.6, specifically: $ pipenv --python 3.6 Install all dependencies for a project (including dev): $ pipenv install --dev Create a lockfile containing pre-releases: $ pipenv lock --pre Show a graph of your installed dependencies: $ pipenv graph Check your installed dependencies for security vulnerabilities: $ pipenv check Install a local setup.py into your virtual environment/Pipfile: $ pipenv install -e . Commands: check Checks for security vulnerabilities and... graph Displays currently–installed dependency graph... install Installs provided packages and adds them to... lock Generates Pipfile.lock. open View a given module in your editor. run Spawns a command installed into the... shell Spawns a shell within the virtualenv. uninstall Un-installs a provided package and removes it... update Uninstalls all packages, and re-installs...
Locate the project:
$ pipenv --where /Users/kennethreitz/Library/Mobile Documents/com~apple~CloudDocs/repos/kr/pipenv/test
Locate the virtualenv:
$ pipenv --venv /Users/kennethreitz/.local/share/virtualenvs/test-Skyy4vre
Locate the Python interpreter:
$ pipenv --py /Users/kennethreitz/.local/share/virtualenvs/test-Skyy4vre/bin/python
$ pipenv install Creating a virtualenv for this project... ... No package provided, installing all dependencies. Virtualenv location: /Users/kennethreitz/.local/share/virtualenvs/test-EJkjoYts Installing dependencies from Pipfile.lock... ... To activate this project's virtualenv, run the following: $ pipenv shell
Install a dev dependency:
$ pipenv install pytest --dev Installing pytest... ... Adding pytest to Pipfile's [dev-packages]...
Show a dependency graph:
$ pipenv graph requests==2.18.4 - certifi [required: >=2017.4.17, installed: 2017.7.27.1] - chardet [required: >=3.0.2,<3.1.0, installed: 3.0.4] - idna [required: >=2.5,<2.7, installed: 2.6] - urllib3 [required: <1.23,>=1.21.1, installed: 1.22]
Generate a lockfile:
$ pipenv lock Assuring all dependencies from Pipfile are installed... Locking [dev-packages] dependencies... Locking [packages] dependencies... Note: your project now has only default [packages] installed. To install [dev-packages], run: $ pipenv install --dev
Install all dev dependencies:
$ pipenv install --dev Pipfile found at /Users/kennethreitz/repos/kr/pip2/test/Pipfile. Considering this to be the project home. Pipfile.lock out of date, updating... Assuring all dependencies from Pipfile are installed... Locking [dev-packages] dependencies... Locking [packages] dependencies...
$ pipenv uninstall --all No package provided, un-installing all dependencies. Found 25 installed package(s), purging... ... Environment now purged and fresh!
Use the shell:
$ pipenv shell Loading .env environment variables… Launching subshell in virtual environment. Type 'exit' or 'Ctrl+D' to return. $ ▯
Documentation resides over at pipenv.org.
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