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Integrates the Diazo theming engine with Plone

Project description

This package offers a simple way to develop and deploy Plone themes using
the Diazo theming engine. If you are not familiar with Diazo, check out the
`Diazo documentation <>`_.

This version of ```` (1.2.X) ships with Plone version 5.0 or later. For Plone 4.3 please use 1.1.X.

It comes with a user guide, reproduced below, available through the theming
control panel. manual

This guide provides an overview of Diazo theming in Plone versions 4.3 and higher.

.. contents:: Contents


In `Plone <>`_ versions 4.3 and higher you
can edit your website theme through web browser in Plone's site setup control panel.
Only HTML, CSS and little XML knowledge needed as the prerequisitements.
This guide explains how to use this feature of Plone.

See `introduction video to <>`_.

What is a Diazo theme?

A "theme" makes a website (in this case, one powered by Plone) take on a
particular look and feel.

*Diazo* (formerly known as XDV) is a technology that can be used to theme
websites. It is not specific to Plone per se, but has been created by the Plone
community and, as of Plone 4.3, provides the default way to apply a theme to a
Plone site. You can learn more about Diazo at

Diazo themes may be a little different to themes you have created in other
systems, and indeed to themes you may have created for earlier versions of
Plone. A Diazo theme is really about transforming some content - in this case
the output from "vanilla" Plone - into a different set of HTML markup by
applying a set of rules to combine a static HTML mock-up of the end result you
want with the dynamic content coming from Plone.

In comparison, the previous way to theme a Plone site (like the way many other
content management systems are themed) relies on selectively overriding the
templates and scripts that Plone uses to build a page with custom versions
that produce different HTML markup. The latter approach can be more powerful,
certainly, but also requires much deeper knowledge of Plone's internals and
command of server-side technologies such as Zope Page Templates and even Python.
Diazo themes, by contrast, are easy to understand for web designers and non-
developers alike.

A Diazo theme consists of three elements:

1. One or more HTML mockups, also referred to as *theme* files, that represent
the desired look and feel.

These will contain placeholders for content that is to be provided by the
Plone content management system. Mockups usually reference CSS, JavaScript
and image files by relative path. The most common way to create a theme is to
use desktop software like Dreamweaver or a text editor to create the relevant
markup, styles and scripts, and test the theme locally in a web browser.
2. The *content* that is being themed. In this case, that is the output from
3. A *rules file*, which defines how the placeholders in the theme (i.e. the
HTML mockup) should be replaced by relevant markup in the content.

The rules file uses XML syntax (similar to HTML). Here is a very simple

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<theme href="theme.html" />

<replace css:content-children="#content" css:theme-children="#main" />


Here, we are replacing the contents (child nodes) of a placeholder element
with HTML id ``main`` in the theme file (``theme.html``, found in the same
directory as the ``rules.xml`` file, as referenced by the ``<theme />`` rule)
with the contents (children) of the element with the HTML id ``content`` in
the markup generated by Plone.

When this theme is applied, the result will look very much like the static
HTML file ``theme.html`` (and its referenced CSS, JavaScript and image
files), except the placeholder that is identified by the node in the theme
with id ``main`` will be filled by Plone's main content area.

Plone ships with an example theme called, appropriately, *Example theme*, which
uses the venerable `Twitter Bootstrap <>`_
to build a simple yet functional theme exposing most of Plone's core
functionality. You are advised to study it - in particular the ``rules.xml``
file - to learn more about how Diazo themes work.

Using the control panel

After installation of the *Diazo theme support* package in a Plone site, the
*Theming* control panel will appear in Plone's *Site setup*.

The main tab of this control panel, *Themes*, will show all available themes,
with buttons to activate/deactivate, modify, copy or delete each, as well as
buttons to create new themes or bring up this help text.

Click on a theme preview image to open a preview of that theme in a new tab
or window. The preview is navigable, but form submissions and some advanced
features will not work.

Selecting a theme

To apply an existing theme, simply click the *Activate* button underneath the
theme preview. The currently active theme will be highlighted in yellow. If
you deactivate the currently active theme, no Diazo theme will be applied, i.e.
"vanilla" Plone theming will apply.

*Note*: The *Theming* control panel is never theemd, ensuring that you can
always deactivate an errant theme that could render the control panel unusable.
Thus, you may not see any difference immediately after enabling a theme. Simply
navigate to another page in the Plone site, though, and you should see the
theme applied.

Creating a new theme

New themes can be created in one of two ways:

* Click the *New theme* button at the top of the *Themes* tab in the *Theming*
control panel and enter a title and description in the form that appears.
A bare-bones theme will be created, and you will be taken to the *Modify
theme* screen (see below), where you can edit or create theme and rules files.
* Click the *Copy* button underneath any existing theme and enter a title and
description in the form that appears. A new theme will be created as a copy
of the existing theme, and you will be taken to the *Modify theme* (see
below), where you can edit or create theme and rules files.

Uploading an existing theme

Themes can be distributed as Zip files, containing the HTML mockup and rules
file. To download an existing theme, click the *Download* button underneath the
theme on the *Themes* tab of the *Theming* control panel.

To upload such a Zip file into another site, use the *Upload Zip file* button
on the *Themes* tab of the *Theming* control panel. You can choose whether or
not to replace any existing theme with the same name (based on the name of the
top-level directory contained within the Zip file).

You can also upload a Zip file of a static HTML mockup that does not contain a
rules file, such as a design provided by a Plone-agnostic web designer.

In this case, a basic ``rules.xml`` file will be added for you to start building
up a theme from using the *Modify theme* screen (see below). The
generated rules file will assume the main HTML mockup file is called
``index.html``, but you can change this in ``rules.xml``.

Once you have successfully uploaded a theme Zip file, you will be taken to the
*Modify theme* screen (see below), where you can edit or create theme files.

*Hint:* If you get an error message like "The uploaded file does not contain
a valid theme archive", this usually means that you have uploaded a Zip file
that contains multiple files and folders, rather than a single top level
folder with all the theme resources in it. This could happen if you compressed
a theme or HTML mockup by adding its files and folders directly a Zip archive,
rather than compressing the directory in which they were found. To fix this,
simply unzip the archive on your computer into a new directory, move up a level,
and compress this directory on its own into a new Zip file, which you can then

Modifying the theme

You can modify a theme by clicking *Modify theme* underneath a theme in the
*Themes* tab of the *Theming* control panel. This screen is also launched
automatically when you create or upload a new theme.

*Note:* Only themes created or uploaded through the *Theming* control panel can
be modified through Plone. Themes installed by third-party add-ons or
distributed on the filesystem cannot, although changes made on the filesystem
will be reflected immediately if Zope is running in debug mode. To modify a
filesystem theme, you can copy it to a new in-Plone theme by clicking the *Copy*
button underneath the theme in the *Theming* control panel.

The *Modify theme* screen initially shows a file manager, with a file tree on
the left and an editor on the right. Click on a file in the file tree to open an
editor or preview: HTML, CSS, JavaScript and other text files can be edited
directly through the editor. Other files (e.g. images) will be rendered as a

*Note:* The advanced editor with syntax highlighting is not available in
Microsoft Internet Explorer.

Click *New folder* to create a new folder. You can also right-click on a folder
in the file tree to bring up this action.

Click *New file* to create a new text file. You can also right-click on a folder
in the file tree to bring up this action.

Click *Upload file* to upload a file from your computer. You can also right-
click on a folder in the file tree to bring up this action.

Click *Preview theme* to preview the theme as it will be applied with the mockup
and rules as currently saved. The preview is navigable, but forms and certain
advanced features will not work.

To save the file currently being edited, click the *Save file* button, or use
the keyboard shortcut ``Ctrl+S`` (Windows/Linux) or ``Cmd+S`` (Mac).

To rename or delete a file or folder, right-click on it in the file tree and
select the appropriate action.

The theme inspector

The theme inspector provides an advanced interface for discovering and building
up the rules of a Diazo theme. It can be launched by clicking the *Show
inspectors* button on the *Modify theme* screen for in-Plone themes, or by
clicking the *Inspect theme* button underneath a filesystem theme on the
*Themes* tab of the *Theming* control panel.

The theme inspector consists of two panels:

* The *HTML mockup*. If there are several HTML files in the theme, you can switch
between them using the drop-down list underneath the *HTML mockup* panel.
* The *Unthemed content*. This shows Plone without any theme applied.

Either panel can be maximised by clicking the arrows icon at the top right of

The *HTML mockups* and *Unthemed content* panels can be switch to source view,
showing their underlying HTML markup, by clicking the tags icon at the top right
of either.

As you hover over elements in the *HTML mockup* or *Unthemed content* panels,
you will see:

* An outline showing the element under the cursor.
* A CSS or XPath selector in the status bar at the bottom if the panel which
would uniquely identify this element in a Diazo rule.

Click on an element or press ``Enter`` whilst hovering oveer an element to
select it. The most recently selected element in each panel is shown in the
bottom right of the relevant status bar.

Press ``Esc`` whilst hovering over an element to select its parent. This is
useful when trying to select "invisible" container elements. Press ``Enter``
to save this selection.

The contents of the *HTML mockup* or (more commonly) *Unthemed content* panels
can be navigated, for example to get to a content page that requires specific
theme rules, by disabling the inspector. Use the toggle switches at the bottom
right of the relevant panel to enable or disable the selector.

The rule builder

Click the *Build rule* button near the top of the *Modify theme* or *Inspect
theme* screen to launch an interactive rule building wizard. You will be asked
which type of rule to build, and then prompted to select the relevant elements
in the *HTML mockup* and/or *Unthemed content* panels as required. By default,
this will use any saved selections, unless you untick the *Use selected
elements* box on the first page if the wizard.

Once the wizard completes, you will be shown the generated rule. You can edit
this if you wish. If you click *Insert*, the newly generated rule will be
inserted into the ``rules.xml`` editor at or near your current cursor position.
You can move it around or edit it further as you wish.

Click *Preview theme* to preview the theme in a new tab or window. Don't forget
to save the ``rules.xml`` file if you have made changes.

*Note*: In readonly mode, you can build rules and inspect the HTML mockup and
theme, but not change the ``rules.xml`` file. In this case, the *Insert* button
of the rule builder (see below) will not be available either.

*Note:* The ability to insert rules from the *Build rule* wizard are not
available in Microsoft Internet Explorer, although you will be given the option
to copy the rule to the clipboard when using this browser.

Advanced settings

The *Theming* control panel also contains a tab named *Advanced settings*. Here
be dragons.

The *Advanced setings* tab is divided into two areas. The first, *Theme
details*, contains the underlying settings that are modified when a theme is
applied from the *Themes* control panel. These are:

* Whether or not Diazo themes are enabled at all.
* The path to the rules file, conventionally called ``rules.xml``, either
relative to the Plone site root or as an absolute path to an external
* The prefix to apply when turning relative paths in themes (e.g. references to
images in an ``<img />`` tag's ``src`` attribute) into absolute ones at
rendering time.
* The HTML ``DOCTYPE`` to apply to the rendered output, if different to the default
``XHTML 1.0 Transitional``.
* Whether or not to allow theme resources (likes ``rules.xml``) to be read from
the network. Disabling this gives a modest performance boost.
* A list of host names for which a theme is never applied. Most commonly, this
contains ````, allowing you to view an unthemed site through
```` and a themed one at ``http://localhost:8080`` during
development, say.
* A list of theme parameters and the TALES expressions to generate them
(see below).

The second, *Theme base*, controls the presentation of the unthemed content, and
apply even if no Diazo theme is being applied. These are the settings that used
to be found in the *Themes* control panel in previous versions of Plone.


The remainder of this guide contains reference materials useful for theme

Deploying and testing themes

To build and test a theme, you must first create a static HTML mockup of the
look and feel you want, and then build a rules file to describe how Plone's
content maps to the placeholders in this mockup.

The mockup can be created anywhere using whatever tool you feel most comfortable
building web pages in. To simplify integration with Plone, you are recommended
to make sure it uses relative links for resources like CSS, JavaScript and image
files, so that it will render properly when opened in a web browser from a local
file. Plone will convert these relative links to the appropriate absolute paths
automatically, ensuring the theme works no matter which URL the user is viewing
when the theme is applied to a Plone site.

There are several ways to get the theme into Plone:

1. On the filesystem

If you used an installer or a standard "buildout" to set up your
Plone site, you should have a directory called ``resources`` in the
root of your Plone installation (this is created using the
``resources`` option to the buildout recipe
``plone.recipe.zope2instance``. See for more

You can find (or create) a ``theme`` directory inside this
directory, which is used to contain themes. Each theme needs its
own directory with a unique name. Create one
(e.g. ``resources/theme/mytheme``) and put your HTML files and any
references resources inside this directory. You can use
subdirectories if you wish, but you are recommended to keep the
basic theme HTML files at the top of the theme directory.

You will also need a rules file called ``rules.xml`` inside this
directory. If you haven't got one yet, start with an empty one::

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<theme href="theme.html" />
<replace css:content-children="#content" css:theme-children="#main" />


Provided you are running Zope in debug mode (e.g. you start it up
with ``bin/instance fg``), changes to the theme and rules should
take effect immediately. You can preview or enable the theme
through the *Themes* control panel, and then iteratively modify the
``rules.xml`` file or the theme mockup as you wish.

2. Through the web

If you prefer (or do not have filesystem access), you can create
themes entirely through the Plone control panel, either by
duplicating an existing theme, or starting from scratch with a
near-empty theme.

See the instructions on using the control panel above for more

Once a theme has been created, you can modify it through the
*Theming* control panel. See above for more details.

3. As a zip file

Themes can be downloaded from Plone as Zip files, which can then be
uploaded into other sites.

See the instructions on using the control panel above for more

In fact, you can create valid theme zip archives by compressing a
theme directory on the filesystem using a standard compression tool
such as *7-Zip* or *Winzip* (for Windows) or the built-in
*Compress* action in the Mac OS X Finder. Just make sure you
compress exactly one folder that contains all the theme files and
the ``rules.xml`` file. (Do not compress the contents of the folder
directly: when unpacked, the zip file should produce exactly one
folder which in turn contains all the relevant files).

4. In a Python package (programmers only)

If you are creating a Python package containing Plone
customisations that you intend to install into your site, you can
let it register a theme for installation into the site.

To do this, place a directory called e.g. ``theme`` at the top of
the package, next to the Zope ``configure.zcml`` file, and add a
``<plone:static />`` declaration to the ``configure.zcml`` file::



<plone:static name="mytheme" directory="theme" type="theme" />



Notice the declaration of the ``plone`` namespace at the root
``<configure />`` element. Place the theme files and the
``rules.xml`` file into the ``theme`` directory.

If your package has a GenericSetup profile, you can automatically
enable the theme upon installation of this profile by adding a
``theme.xml`` file in the ``profiles/default`` directory,
containing e.g.::


The manifest file

It is possible to give additional information about a theme by placing a file
called ``manifest.cfg`` next to the ``rules.xml`` file at the top of a theme

This file may look like this::

title = My theme
description = A test theme
rules =
prefix = /some/prefix
doctype = <!DOCTYPE html>
preview = preview.png
enabled-bundles = mybundle
disabled-bundles = plone
development-css = /++theme++barceloneta/less/barceloneta.plone.less
production-css = /++theme++barceloneta/less/barceloneta-compiled.css
development-js = /++theme++barceloneta/barceloneta.js
production-js = /++theme++barceloneta/barceloneta.min.js
tinymce-content-css = /++theme++barceloneta/tinymce-styles.css

As shown here, the manifest file can be used to provide a more user friendly
title and a longer description for the theme, for use in the control panel.
Only the ``[theme]`` header is required - all other keys are optional.

Manifest settings:

to use a different rule file name than ``rules.xml`` (you should provide a URL
or relative path).

To change the absolute path prefix (see *Advanced settings*),

prefix = /some/prefix

To employ a ``DOCTYPE`` in the themed content other than ``XHTML 1.0
Transitional``, add e.g.::

doctype = <!DOCTYPE html>

To provide a user-friendly preview of your theme in the *Theming* control panel.
Here, ``preview.png`` is an image file relative to the location of the
``manifest.cfg`` file::

preview = preview.png

Bundles that will automatically be enabled when a theme is activated

Bundles that will automatically be disabled when a theme is activated

CSS to automatically include when in development mode and theme is active

JavaScript file to automatically include when in development mode when
theme is active

CSS to automatically include when theme is active and in production mode

JavaScript to automatically include when theme is active and in production mode

CSS file tinymce should load to apply styles to content inside the editor

CSS file tinymce should load to provide additionally automatically detected
drop-down styles in the editor

Extensions to the Diazo theming engine can add support for additional blocks of
configurable parameters.

Rules syntax

The following is a short summary of the Diazo rules syntax. See for more details and further examples.


Each rule is represented by an XML tag that operates on one or more HTML
elements in the content and/or theme. The elements to operate on are indicated
using attributes of the rules known as *selectors*.

The easiest way to select elements is to use a CSS expression selector, such as
``css:content="#content"`` or ``css:theme="#main .content"``. Any valid CSS 3
expression (including pseudo-selectors like ``:first-child`` may be used.

The standard selectors, ``css:theme`` and ``css:content``, operate on the
element(s) that are matched. If you want to operate on the children of the
matched element instead, use ``css:theme-children="..."`` or
``css:content-children="..."`` instead.

If you cannot construct a suitable CSS 3 expression, you can use XPath
expressions such as ``content="/head/link"`` or ``theme="//div[@id='main']"``
(note the lack of a ``css:`` prefix when using XPath expressions). The two
approaches are equivalent, and you can mix and match freely, but you cannot
have e.g. both a ``css:theme`` and a ``theme`` attribute on a single rule. To
operate on children of a node selected with an XPath expression, use
``theme-children="..."`` or ``content-children="..."``.

You can learn more about XPath at


By default, every rule is executed, though rules that do not match any elements
will of course do nothing. You can make a rule, set of rules or theme reference
(see below) conditional upon an element appearing in the content by adding an
attribute to the rule like ``css:if-content="#some-element"`` (to use an XPath
expression instead, drop the ``css:`` prefix). If no elements match the
expression, the rule is ignored.

**Tip:** if a ``<replace />`` rule matches an element in the theme but not in
the content, the theme node will be dropped (replaced with nothing). If you do
not want this behavior and you are unsure if the content will contain the
relevant element(s), you can use ``css:if-content`` conditional rule. Since
this is a common scenario, there is a shortcut: ``css:if-content=""`` means
"use the expression from the ``css:content`` attribute".

Similarly, you can construct a condition based on the path of the current
request by using an attribute like ``if-path="/news"`` (note that there is no
``css:if-path`` ). If the path starts with a slash, it will match from the root
of the Plone site. If it ends with a slash, it will match to the end of the URL.
You can set an absolute path by using a leading and a trailing slash.

Finally, you can use arbitrary XPath expressions against any defined variable
using an attribute like ``if="$host = 'localhost'"`` . By default, the variables
``url`` , ``scheme`` , ``host`` and ``base`` are available, representing the
current URL. Themes may define additional variables in their manifests.

Available rules

The various rule types are summarized below.




Wraps a set of rules. Must be used as the root element of the rules file. Nested
``<rules />`` can be used with a *condition* to apply a single condition to a
set of rules.

When used as the root element of the rules file, the various XML namespaces must
be declared::


``theme`` and ``notheme``


<theme href="theme.html" />
<theme href="news.html" if-path="/news" />
<notheme if="$host = ''" />

Choose the theme file to be used. The ``href`` is a path relative to the rules
file. If multiple ``<theme />`` elements are present, at most one may be given
without a condition. The first theme with a condition that is true will be used,
with the unconditional theme, if any, used as a fallback.

``<notheme />`` can be used to specify a condition under which no theme
should be used. ``<notheme />`` takes precedence over ``<theme />``.

**Tip:** To ensure you do not accidentally style non-Plone pages, add a
condition like ``css:if-content="#visual-portal-wrapper"`` to the last theme
listed, and do not have any unconditional themes.




Replaces the matched element(s) in the theme with the matched element(s) from
the content.

``before`` and ``after``




Inserts the matched element(s) from the content before or after the matched
element(s) in the theme. By using ``theme-children`` , you can insert the
matched content element(s) as the first (prepend) or last (append) element(s)
inside the matched theme element(s).

``drop`` and ``strip``


<drop css:content=".documentByLine" />
<drop theme="/head/link" />
<drop css:theme="#content *" attributes="onclick onmouseup" />

<strip css:content="#parent-fieldname-text" />

Remove element(s) from the theme or content. Note that unlike most other rules,
a ``<drop />`` or ``<strip />`` rule can operate on the ``theme`` or
``content`` , but not both. ``<drop />`` removes the matched element(s) and
any children, whereas ``<strip />`` removes the matched element(s), but leaves
any children in place.

``<drop />`` may be given a whitespace-separated list of ``attributes`` to
drop. In this case, the matched element(s) themselves will not be removed. Use
``attributes="*"`` to drop all attributes.

``merge`` and ``copy``




These rules operate on attributes. ``<merge />`` will add the contents of the
named attribute(s) in the theme to the value(s) of any existing attributes with
the same name(s) in the content, separated by whitespace. It is mainly used to
merge CSS classes.

``<copy />`` will copy attributes from the matched element(s) in the content
to the matched element(s) in the theme, fully replacing any attributes with
the same name that may already be in the theme.

The ``attributes`` attribute can contain a whitespace-separated list of
attributes, or the special value ``*`` to operate on all attributes of the
matched element.

Advanced modification

Instead of selecting markup to insert into the theme from the content, you can
place markup directly into the rules file, as child nodes of the relevant rule

<after css:theme="head">
<style type="text/css">
body > h1 { color: red; }

This also works on the content, allowing you to modify it on the fly before any
rules are applied::

<replace css:content="#portal-searchbox input.searchButton">
<button type="submit">
<img src="images/search.png" alt="Search" />

In addition to including static HTML in this manner, you can use XSLT
instructions that operate on the content. You can even use ``css:`` selectors
directly in the XSLT.::

<replace css:theme="#details">
<dl id="details">
<xsl:for-each css:select="table#details > tr">
<dt><xsl:copy-of select="td[1]/text()"/></dt>
<dd><xsl:copy-of select="td[2]/node()"/></dd>

Rules may operate on content that is fetched from somewhere other than the
current page being rendered by Plone, by using the ``href`` attribute to specify
a path of a resource relative to the root of the Plone site::

<!-- Pull in extra navigation from a browser view on the Plone site root -->

Theme parameters

It is possible to pass arbitrary parameters to your theme, which can be
referenced as variables in XPath expressions. Parameters can be set in Plone's
theming control panel, and may be imported from a ``manifest.cfg`` file.

For example, you could have a parameter ``mode`` that could be set to the
string ``live`` or ``test``. In your rules, you could do something like this
to insert a warning when you are on the test server::

<before css:theme-children="body" if="$mode = 'test'">
<span class="warning">Warning: This is the test server</span>

You could even use the parameter value directly, e.g.::

<before css:theme-children="body">
<span class="info">This is the <xsl:value-of select="$mode" /> server</span>

The following parameters are always available to Plone themes:

The scheme portion of the inbound URL, usually ``http`` or ``https``.
The hostname in the inbound URL.
The path segment of the inbound URL. This will not include any virtual
hosting tokens, i.e. it is the path the end user sees.
The Zope base url (the ``BASE1`` request variable).

You can add additional parameters through the control panel, using TALES
expressions. Parameters are listed on the *Advanced* tab, one per line, in
the form ``<name> = <expression>``.

For example, if you want to avoid theming any pages that are loaded by Plone's
overlays, you can make use of the ``ajax_load`` request parameter that they
set. Your rules file might include::

<notheme if="$ajax_load" />

To add this parameter as well as the ``mode`` parameter outlined earlier, you
could add the following in the control panel::

ajax_load = python: request.form.get('ajax_load')
mode = string: test

The right hand side is a TALES expression. It *must* evaluate to a string,
integer, float, boolean or ``None``: lists, dicts and objects are not
supported. ``python:``, ``string:`` and path expressions work as they do
in Zope Page Templates.

The following variables are available when constructing these TALES expressions:

The context of the current request, usually a content object.
The current request.
The portal root object.
The ``@@plone_context_state`` view, from which you can look up additional
values such as the context's URL or default view.
The ``@@plone_portal_state`` view, form which you can look up additional
values such as the navigation root URL or whether or not the current
user is logged in.

See ```` for details about the ``@@plone_context_state`` and
``@@plone_portal_state`` views.

Theme parameters are usually integral to a theme, and will therefore be set
based on a theme's manifest when a theme is imported or enabled. This is done
using the ``[theme:parameters]`` section in the ``manifest.cfg`` file. For

title = My theme
description = A test theme

ajax_load = python: request.form.get('ajax_load')
mode = string: test

Theme debugging

When Zope is in development mode (e.g. running in the foreground in a console
with ``bin/instance fg``), the theme will be re-compiled on each request. In
non-development mode, it is compiled once when first accessed, and then only re-
compiled the control panel values are changed.

Also, in development mode, it is possible to temporarily disable the theme
by appending a query string parameter ````. For example::


Finally, you can get an overlay containing your rules, annotated with how
many times the conditions matched both the theme and the document. Green
means the condition matched, red means it didn't. The entire rule tag will
be green (i.e. it had an effect) so long as all conditions within are green.

To enable this, append ``diazo.debug=1``. For example::


The parameter is ignored in non-development mode.

Commonly used rules

The following recipes illustrate rules commonly used in building Plone themes:

To copy the page title::

<replace css:theme="title" css:content="title" />

To copy the ``<base />`` tag (necessary for Plone's links to work)::

<replace css:theme="base" css:content="base" />

If there is no ``<base />`` tag in the theme, you can do:

<before css:theme-children="head" css:content="base" />

To drop all styles and JavaScript resources from the theme and copy them
from Plone's ``portal_css`` tool instead::

<!-- Drop styles in the head - these are added back by including them from Plone -->
<drop theme="/html/head/link" />
<drop theme="/html/head/style" />

<!-- Pull in Plone CSS -->
<after theme-children="/html/head" content="/html/head/link | /html/head/style" />

To copy Plone's JavaScript resources::

<!-- Pull in Plone CSS -->
<after theme-children="/html/head" content="/html/head/script" />

To copy the class of the ``<body />`` tag (necessary for certain Plone
JavaScript functions and styles to work properly)::

<!-- Body -->
<merge attributes="class" css:theme="body" css:content="body" />

Advanced: Using portal_css to manage your CSS

Plone's "resource registries", including the ``portal_css`` tool, can be used
to manage CSS stylesheets. This offers several advantages over simply linking
to your stylesheets in the template, such as:

* Detailed control over the ordering of stylesheets
* Merging of stylesheets to reduce the number of downloads required to render
your page
* On-the-fly stylesheet compression (e.g. whitespace removal)
* The ability to include or exclude a stylesheet based on an expression

It is usually desirable (and sometimes completely necessary) to leave the
theme file untouched, but you can still use ``portal_css`` to manage your
stylesheets. The trick is to:

* Register your theme's styles with Plone's ``portal_css`` tool (this is
normally best done when you ship a theme in a Python package - there is
currently no way to automate this for a theme imported from a Zip file or
created through the web)
* Drop the theme's styles with a rule, and then
* Include all styles from Plone

For example, you could add the following rules::

<drop theme="/html/head/link" />
<drop theme="/html/head/style" />

<!-- Pull in Plone CSS -->
<after theme-children="/html/head" content="/html/head/link | /html/head/style" />

The use of an "or" expression for the content in the ``after />`` rule means
that the relative ordering of link and style elements is maintained.

To register stylesheets upon product installation using GenericSetup, use the
``cssregistry.xml`` import step in your GenericSetup ``profiles/default``

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<object name="portal_css">

<!-- Set conditions on stylesheets we don't want to pull in -->
expression="not:request/HTTP_X_THEME_ENABLED | nothing"

<!-- Add new stylesheets -->
<stylesheet title="" authenticated="False" cacheable="True"
compression="safe" conditionalcomment="" cookable="True" enabled="on"
expression="request/HTTP_X_THEME_ENABLED | nothing"
id="++theme++my.theme/css/styles.css" media="" rel="stylesheet"


There is one important caveat, however. Your stylesheet may include relative
URL references of the following form:

background-image: url(../images/bg.jpg);

If your stylesheet lives in a resource directory (e.g. it is registered in
``portal_css`` with the id ``++theme++my.theme/css/styles.css``), this
will work fine so long as the registry (and Zope) is in debug mode. The
relative URL will be resolved by the browser to

However, you may find that the relative URL breaks when the registry is put
into production mode. This is because resource merging also changes the URL
of the stylesheet to be something like::


To correct for this, you must set the ``applyPrefix`` flag to ``true`` when
installing your CSS resource using ``cssregistry.xml``. There is a
corresponding flag in the ``portal_css`` user interface.

It is sometimes useful to show some of Plone's CSS in the styled site. You
can achieve this by using an Diazo ``<after />`` rule or similar to copy the
CSS from Plone's generated ``<head />`` into the theme. You can use the
``portal_css`` tool to turn off the style sheets you do not want.

However, if you also want the site to be usable in non-themed mode (e.g. on a
separate URL), you may want to have a larger set of styles enabled when Diazo
is not used. To make this easier, you can use the following expressions as
conditions in the ``portal_css`` tool (and ``portal_javascripts`` if relevant),
in ``portal_actions``, in page templates, and other places that use TAL
expression syntax::

request/HTTP_X_THEME_ENABLED | nothing

This expression will return True if Diazo is currently enabled, in which case
an HTTP header "X-Theme-Enabled" will be set.

If you later deploy the theme to a fronting web server such as nginx, you can
set the same request header there to get the same effect, even if
```` is uninstalled.


not: request/HTTP_X_THEME_ENABLED | nothing

to 'hide' a style sheet from the themed site.

Advanced: Disable diazo transformation by setting the ``X-Theme-Disabled`` header

The diazo transformation is not applied
if a response header ``X-Theme-Disabled`` is set.

In a browser view, the header can be set by using this instruction::

self.request.response.setHeader('X-Theme-Disabled', '1')

This is a complete example::

class NoDiazoView(BrowserView):

def __call__(self):
self.request.response.setHeader('X-Theme-Disabled', '1')
return super(NoDiazoView).__call__()


.. You should *NOT* be adding new change log entries to this file.
You should create a file in the news directory instead.
For helpful instructions, please see:

.. towncrier release notes start

4.0.0 (2019-02-13)

Breaking changes:

- - Factor out all static resources into plone.staticresources as part of PLIP
1653. [thet, sunew] (#149)

Bug fixes:

- a11y: Added role attribute for portalMessage [nzambello] (#151)
- Fixed DeprecationWarning about SafeConfigParser class on Python 3. [maurits]
- Fixed ResourceWarnings for unclosed files in tests. [maurits] (#154)
- Fixed "RuntimeError: dictionary changed size during iteration" [jensens]

3.0.1 (2018-12-11)

Breaking changes:

- Remove five.globalrequest dependency.
It has been deprecated upstream (Zope 4).

3.0.0 (2018-11-02)

New features:

- Recompiled resource bundles with latest mockup.

Bug fixes:

- Explizit load permissions for controlpanel.

- Fix tests for merged plone.login.

- More Python 3 fixes
[ale-rt, pbauer, davisagli]

2.0.3 (2018-04-04)

Bug fixes:

- Added a failing (5.1) test for fileuploads in the theme editor that breaks when is installed. Fix is in

2.0.2 (2018-02-04)

Bug fixes:

- remove mention of non-existent Example theme

- Prepare for Python 2 / 3 compatibility
[pbauer, ale-rt]

2.0.1 (2017-07-03)

Bug fixes:

- Remove unittest2 dependency

2.0 (2017-05-24)

Breaking changes:

- Let the pattern configuration of the thememapper be in JSON format.
Fixes problems of thememapper working together with latest patternslib (2.1.0).

Bug fixes:

- Fix thememapper pattern handling of buttons (via mockup update).
Update thememapper bundle.

1.3.6 (2017-03-28)

Bug fixes:

- Reduce log level of ThemingPolicy cache to 'debug'.

1.3.5 (2017-02-12)

Bug fixes:

- Fix imports from Globals that was removed in Zope4

- No longer patch Control Panel internals, as it was removed in Zope4

- reST syntax, styleguide, wording and line length of the docs

1.3.4 (2016-12-30)

Bug fixes:

- Make diazo.debug work again when DIAZO_ALWAYS_CACHE_RULES is set.

1.3.3 (2016-12-02)

Bug fixes:

- Remove roman monkey patch.

1.3.2 (2016-09-23)

New features:

- Add Update -button for theming control panel making it possible to
reload modified theme manifest without deactivating theme at first.

1.3.1 (2016-09-07)


- Enable unload protection by using pattern class ``pat-formunloadalert`` instead ``enableUnloadProtection``.

- Small fix in documentation

- Fix issue where theming control panel errored when a packaged
theme was overidden with a global resource directory theme

1.3.0 (2016-06-07)


- Control theme compilation in development mode
through the environment variable ``DIAZO_ALWAYS_CACHE_RULES``


- Small fixes to documentaion

1.2.19 (2016-03-31)


- For the theming controlpanel, change base URLs from portal URL to what getSite returns, but don't change the controlpanels context binding.
This allows for more flexibility when configuring it to be allowed on a sub site with a local registry.

1.2.18 (2016-03-03)


- Fixed html validation: element nav does not need a role attribute.

- Handle potential scenarios where wrong theme would show selected in the theming
control panel

1.2.17 (2016-02-11)


- Documented how to disable diazo transform by setting the
``X-Theme-Disabled`` header. [ale-rt]


- Rebuild resources so they work with latest mockup/patternslib
integration changes. [vangheem]

- Removed github dependancies in thememapper. [Gagaro]

1.2.16 (2015-11-26)


- Updated Site Setup link in all control panels.

1.2.15 (2015-10-28)


- Do not fail in ``isThemeEnabled`` when we have no settings, for
example when migrating from Plone 3 to Plone 5, but maybe also in
other cases.

- Fixed Unicode Encode Error when to copy into multi-byte title / description

1.2.14 (2015-09-27)

- Fix i18n in

1.2.13 (2015-09-20)

- Pull mark_special_links, external_links_open_new_window values
from configuration registry.

- Fix visual glitch on Safari

- Show active theme at the top of the theme list.

1.2.12 (2015-09-15)

- Remove bundled twitter bootstrap theme 'example'.

- Remove duplicate type attribute for theming control panel delete modal.

1.2.11 (2015-09-11)

- rewrite manifest from copied theme with relative paths also

1.2.10 (2015-09-08)

- theme mapper fixes for odd behavior in save files at times

1.2.9 (2015-08-22)

- Build thememapper resources.

- Added cache invalidation option.

1.2.8 (2015-08-20)

- change link from to

- fix toolbar on control panel

- fix less building

- Fixed copy modal for themes with a dot in the name.

1.2.7 (2015-07-18)

- Provide better styling to themeing control panel, less build, finish implementation

- make sure when copying themes that you try to modify the base urls
to match the new theme are all the manifest.cfg settings

- implement switchable theming policy API, re-implement theme caching

- fixed configuration of copied theme

- implemented upload for theme manager

- Change the category of the configlet to 'plone-general'.

1.2.6 (2015-06-05)

- removed irrelevant theme renaming code

- Filesystem themes are now correctly overridden. TTW themes can no longer be overriden

- re-added manifest check

- Fixed broken getTheme method

- Minor ReStructuredText fixes for documentation.

1.2.5 (2015-05-13)

- Fix RestructuredText representation on PyPI by bringing back a few
example lines in the manifest.

1.2.4 (2015-05-12)

- Add setting for tinymce automatically detected styles

1.2.3 (2015-05-04)

- fix AttributeError: 'NoneType' object has no attribute 'getroottree' when the result is not
html / is empty.

- make control panel usable again. Fixed problem where skins
control panel is no longer present.

- unified different getTheme functions.

- pep8ified, housekeeping, cleanup

- Specify i18n:domain in

- pat-modal pattern has been renamed to pat-plone-modal

- Fix load pluginSettings for the enabled theme before calling plugins for
onEnabled and call onEnabled plugins with correct parameters

1.2.2 (2015-03-22)

- Patch the ZMI only for available ZMI pages.

- Change deprecated import of ```` to

- Add an error log if the subrequest failed (probably a relative xi:include)
instead of silently returning None (and so having a xi:include returning

- Fix transform to not affect the result when theming is disabled

- Integrate thememapper mockup pattern and fix theming control panel
to be more usable

1.2.1 (2014-10-23)

- Remove DL's from portal message in templates.

- Fix "Insufficient Privileges" for "Site Administrators" on the control panel.

- Add IThemeAppliedEvent

- Put themes in a separate zcml file to be able to exclude them

- #14107 bot requests like /widget/oauth_login/info.txt causes
problems finding correct context with

- Added support for ++theme++ to traverse to the contents of the
current activated theme.

1.2.0 (2014-03-02)

- Disable theming for manage_shutdown view.

- Fix reference to theme error template

- Add "Test Styles" button in control panel to expose, test_rendering template.

1.1.1 (2013-05-23)

- Fixed i18n issues.

- Fixed i18n issues.

- This fixed UnicodeDecodeError when Theme Title is Non-ASCII
in the manifest.cfg file.

1.1 (2013-04-06)

- Fixed i18n issues.

- Make the template theme do what it claims to do: copy styles as
well as scripts.

- Change the label and description for the example theme to supply useful

- Upgrades from 1.0 get the combined "Theming" control panel that was added in

1.1b2 (2013-01-01)

- Ensure host blacklist utilises SERVER_URL to correctly determine hostname
for sites hosted as sub-folders at any depth.

- Add test about / integration when
using GZIP compression for anonymous
(see ticket `12038 <>`_). [ebrehault]

1.1b1 (2012-10-16)

- Add diazo.debug option, route all error_log output through
this so debugging can be displayed

- Make example Bootstrap-based theme use the HTML5 DOCTYPE.

- Demote ZMI patch log message to debug level.

- Upgrade to ACE 1.0 via plone.resourceeditor

- Put quotes around jQuery attribute selector values to appease
jQuery 1.7.2.

1.1a2 (2012-08-30)

- Protect the control panel with a specific permission so it can be

- Advise defining ajax_load as ``request.form.get('ajax_load')`` in
manifest.cfg. For instance, the login_form has an hidden empty
ajax_load input, which would give an unthemed page after submitting
the form.

- Change theme editor page templates to use main_template rather than
prefs_main_template to avoid inserting CSS and JavaScript too early
under plonetheme.classic.

1.1a1 (2012-08-08)

- Replace the stock "Themes" control panel with a renamed "Theming" control
panel, which incorporates the former's settings under its "Advanced" tab.

- Add a full in-Plone theme authoring environment
[optilude, vangheem]

- Update IBeforeTraverseEvent import to zope.traversing.

- On tab "Manage themes", change table header to
better describe what's actually listed.

1.0 (2012-04-15)

* Prevent AttributeError when getRequest returns None.

* Calculate subrequests against navigation root rather than portal.

* Supply closest context found for 404 pages.

* Lookup portal state with correct context.

1.0b9 - 2011-11-02

* Patch App.Management.Navigation to disable theming of ZMI pages.

1.0b8 - 2011-07-04

* Evaluate theme parameters regardless of whether there is a valid context or
not (e.g. when templating a 404 page).

1.0b7 - 2011-06-12

* Moved the *views* and *overrides* plugins out into a separate package
````. If you want to use those features, you need
to install that package in your buildout. Themes attempting to register
views or overrides in environments where ```` is not
installed will install, but views and overrides will not take effect.

1.0b6 - 2011-06-08

* Support for setting arbitrary Doctypes.

* Upgrade step to update configuration.

* Fixed plugin initialization when applying a theme.

* Query the resource directory using the 'currentTheme' name instead
of the Theme object (updating the control panel was broken).

* Fix zip import (plugin initialization was broken.)

1.0b5 - 2011-05-29

* Make sure the control panel is never themed, by setting the X-Theme-Disabled
response header.

* Add support for registering new views from Zope Page Templates and
overriding existing templates. See README for more details.

1.0b4 - 2011-05-24

* Add support for ``X-Theme-Disabled`` response header.

* Make "Replace existing theme" checkbox default to off.

* Fix control panel to correctly display a newly uploaded theme.

* Fix zip import to work correctly when no manifest is supplied.

1.0b3 - 2011-05-23

* Show theme name along with title in control panel.

1.0b2 - 2011-05-16

* Encode internally resolved documents to support non-ascii characters

* Fix control panel to use theme name not id.

1.0b1 - 2011-04-22

* Wrap internal subrequests for css or js in style or script tags to
facilitate inline includes.

* Add ``theme.xml`` import step (see README).

* Add support for ``[theme:parameters]`` section in ``manifest.cfg``, which
can be used to set parameters and the corresponding TALES expressions to
calculate them.

* Add support for parameter expressions based on TALES expressions

* Use plone.subrequest 1.6 features to work with IStreamIterator from

* Depend on ``Products.CMFPlone`` instead of ``Plone``.

* Added support for uploading themes as Zip archives.

* Added theme off switch: Add a query string parameter ```` to a
request whilst Zope is in development mode to turn off the theme.

* Removed 'theme' and alternative themes support: Themes should be referenced
using the ``<theme />`` directive in the Diazo rules file.

* Removed 'domains' support: This can be handled with the rules file syntax
by using the ``host`` parameter.

* Removed 'notheme' support: This can be handled within the rules file syntax
by using the ``path`` parameter.

* Added ``path`` and ``host`` as parameters to the Diazo rules file. These
can now be used as conditional expressions.

* Removed dependency on XDV in favour of dependency on Diazo (which is the
new name for XDV).

* Forked from collective.xdv 1.0rc11.

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