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Install functions to simulate gene expression compendia

Project description

ponyo

Coverage Status

Alexandra J. Lee and Casey S. Greene 2020

University of Pennsylvania

This repository is named after the the character Ponyo, from Hayao Miyazaki's animated film Ponyo, as she uses her magic to simulate a human appearance after getting a sample of human blood. The method simulates new gene expression data by training a generative neural network on existing gene expression data to learn a representation of gene expression patterns.

Installation

This package can be installed using pip:

pip install ponyo

Types of simulations

There are 3 types of simulations that ponyo implements:

Name Description
Simulation by random sampling This approach simulates gene expression data by randomly sampling from the latent space distribution. The function to run this approach is divided into 2 components: simulate_by_random_sampling is a wrapper which loads VAE trained models from directory specified by vae_model_dir param and run_sample_simulation which runs the simulation. Note: simulate_by_random_sampling assumes the files are organized as described above. If this directory organization doesn't apply to you, then you can directly use run_sample_simulation by passing in your pre-trained VAE model files. An example of how to use this can be found here.
Simulation by latent transformation This approach simulates gene expression data by encoding experiments into the latent space and then shifting samples from that experiment in the latent space. Unlike the "Simulation by random sampling" approach, this method accounts for experiment level information by shifting samples from the same experiment together. The function to run this approach is divided into 2 components: simulate_by_latent_transformation is a wrapper which loads VAE trained models from directory specified by the vae_model_dir param and run_latent_transformation_simulation which runs the simulation. Note: simulate_by_latent_transformation assumes the files are organized as described above. If this directory organization doesn't apply to you, then you can directly use run_latent_transformation_simulation by passing in your VAE model trained using run_tybalt_training in vae.py.

There are 3 flavors of this approach:

1. simulate_by_latent_transform inputs a dataset with multiple experiments (these are your template experiments) and then it outputs the same number of new simulated experiments that are created by shifting a randomly sampled template experiment. This simulation generates a collection of different types of experiments. An example of how to use this can be found here.

2. shift_template_experiment which inputs a single template experiment, which is an experiment included within the dataset used to train the VAE model. This simulation outputs multiple simulated experiments based on the one template by shifting that template experiment to different locations in the latent space. This simulation generates a collection of experiments of a similar design type. An example for how to use this can be found here.

3. embed_shift_template_experiment which performs the same simulation approach as shift_template_experiment however this is using a template experiment that is not contained within the training dataset. An example for how to use this can be found here.

How to use

Example notebooks using ponyo on test data can be found in examples

Additionally, this method has been used in simulate-expression-compendia and generic-expression-patterns repositories.

Setting random seeds

To keep the VAE training deterministic, you will need to set multiple random seeds:

  1. numpy random
  2. python random
  3. tensorflow random

For an example of this, see example notebooks

Configuration file

The tables lists the core parameters required to generate simulated data using modules from ponyo.

Parameters required for all simulation types:

Name Description
base_dir str: Root directory containing analysis subdirectories. By default the path is one level up from where the scripts are run.
local_dir str: Parent directory on local machine to store intermediate results
raw_compenium_filename str: File storing raw gene expression data
normalized_compendium_filename str: File storing normalized gene expression data. This file is generated by normalize_expression_data().
scaler_transform_filename str: Python pickle file to store mapping from normalized to raw gene expression range. This file is generated by normalize_expression_data().
vae_model_dir str: The location where the VAE model files (.h5) are stored.
learning_rate float: Step size used for gradient descent. In other words, it's how quickly the methods is learning
batch_size str: Training is performed in batches. So this determines the number of samples to consider at a given time
epochs int: Number of times to train over the entire input dataset
kappa float: How fast to linearly ramp up KL loss
intermediate_dim int: Size of the hidden layer
latent_dim int: Size of the bottleneck layer
epsilon_std float: Standard deviation of Normal distribution to sample latent space
validation_frac float: Fraction of input samples to use to validate for VAE training
training_stats_dir str: Directory containing the VAE training log files.
num_simulated int: The number of samples (for simulation by random sampling approach) or experiments (for all latent transformation approaches) to simulate.

Additional parameters required for all latent transformation approaches:

Name Description
project_id int: The experiment id to use as a template experiment. This <project_id> corresponds to a group of samples that were used to test an single hypothesis. This parameter is needed if using either shift_template_experiment or embed_shift_template_experiment approaches. If using shift_template_experiment, the id is pulled from the <metadata_experiment_colname> column of the <metadata_filename>. If using embed_shift_template_experiment, the id is used to name the simulated files generated.
is_recount2 bool: True is the compendium dataset being used is recount2. This will determine how experiment ids are parsed for latent transformation approaches.

Additional parameters required for simulate_by_latent_transform and shift_template_experiment simulation types only:

Name Description
metadata_filename str: File containing metadata associated with data. This file maps samples to a given experiment.
metadata_delimiter "," or "\t" to denote the delimiter used in the metadata file.
metadata_experiment_colname str: Column header that contains experiment id that maps expression data and metadata. This parameter needed if using either latent transformation approaches.
metadata_sample_colname str: Column header that contains sample id that maps expression data and metadata. This parameter needed if using either latent transformation approaches.
experiment_ids_filename str: File containing list of experiment ids that have gene expression data available.

Additional parameters required for shift_template_experiment and embed_shift_template_experiment simulation type only:

Name Description
simulated_data_dir str: The location where the simulated experiments are stored.

Additional parameters required for embed_shift_template_experiment simulation type only:

Name Description
raw_template_filename str: Downloaded template gene expression data file. The input dataset should be a matrix that is sample x gene. The file should tab-delimited. The gene ids need to be consistent between the template and compendium datasets. The input dataset should be generated using the same platform as the model you plan to use (i.e. RNA-seq or array). The expression values are expected to have been uniformly processed and can be estimated counts (RNA-seq) or log2 expression (array).
mapped_template_filename str: Template gene expression data filename. This file is generated by scale transforming the data using the scaler_transform_filename. The gene ids of the template file and the compendium file are matched.
normalized_template_filename str: Normalized template gene expression data filename.

For guidance on setting VAE training prameters, see configurations used in simulate-expression-compendia and generic-expression-patterns repositories

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Marvin Thielk for adding coverage to tests and Ben Heil for contributing code to add more flexibility.

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