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A python library for manipulating sequential and-inverter gates.

Project description

<figure> py-aiger logo <figcaption> pyAiger: A python library for manipulating sequential and combinatorial circuits. </figcaption> </figure>

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PyPI version License: MIT DOI

Table of Contents

About PyAiger

  1. Q: How is Py-Aiger pronounced? A: Like "pie" + "grrr".
  2. Q: Why python? Aren't you worried about performance?! A: No. The goals of this library are ease of use and hackability.
  3. Q: No, I'm really concerned about performance! A: This library is not suited to implement logic solvers. For everything else, such as the creation and manipulation of circuits with many thousands of gates in between solver calls, the library is really fast enough.
  4. Q: Where does the name come from? A: Aiger is a popular circuit format. The format is used in hardware model checking, synthesis, and is supported by ABC. The name is a combination of AIG (standing for And-Inverter-Graph) and the austrian mountain Eiger.


If you just need to use aiger, you can just run:

$ pip install py-aiger

For developers, note that this project uses the poetry python package/dependency management tool. Please familarize yourself with it and then run:

$ poetry install

Boolean Expression DSL

While powerful, when writing combinatorial circuits, the Sequential Circuit DSL can be somewhat clumsy. For this common usecase, we have developed the Boolean Expression DSL. All circuits generated this way have a single output.

import aiger
x, y, z = aiger.atoms('x', 'y', 'z')
expr1 = x & y  # circuit with inputs 'x', 'y' and 1 output computing x AND y.
expr2 = x | y  # logical or.
expr3 = x ^ y  # logical xor.
expr4 = x == y  # logical ==, xnor.
expr5 = x.implies(y)
expr6 = ~x  # logical negation.
expr7 = aiger.ite(x, y, z)  # if x then y else z.

# Atoms can be constants.
expr8 = x & aiger.atom(True)  # Equivalent to just x.
expr9 = x & aiger.atom(False)  # Equivalent to const False.

# And you can inspect the AIG if needed.
circ =

# And of course, you can get a BoolExpr from a single output aig.
expr10 = aiger.BoolExpr(circ)

Sequential Circuit DSL

import aiger
from aiger import utils

# Parser for ascii AIGER format.
aig1 = aiger.load(path_to_aig1_file.aag)
aig2 = aiger.load(path_to_aig2_file.aag)

Sequential composition

aig3 = aig1 >> aig2

Parallel composition

aig4 = aig1 | aig2

Circuits with Latches and Delayed Feedback

Sometimes one requires some outputs to be feed back into the circuits as time delayed inputs. This can be accomplished using the loopback method. This method takes in a variable number of dictionaries encoding how to wire an input to an output. The wiring dictionaries with the following keys and default values:

Key Default Meaning
input Input port
output Output port
latch input Latch name
init True Initial latch value
keep_output True Keep loopbacked output as output
# Connect output y to input x with delay, initialized to True.
# (Default initialization is False.)
aig5 = aig1.loopback({
  "input": "x", "output": "y",

aig6 = aig1.loopback({
  "input": "x", "output": "y",
}, {
  "input": "z", "output": "z", latch="z_latch",
  "init": False, "keep_outputs": False


# Relabel input 'x' to 'z'.
aig1['i', {'x': 'z'}]

# Relabel output 'y' to 'w'.
aig1['o', {'y': 'w'}]

# Relabel latches 'l1' to 'l2'.
aig1['l', {'l1': 'l2'}]


# Combinatoric evaluation.
aig3(inputs={'x':True, 'y':False})

# Sequential evaluation.
sim = aig3.simulate([{'x': 0, 'y': 0}, 
                    {'x': 1, 'y': 2},
                    {'x': 3, 'y': 4}])

# Simulation Coroutine
sim = aig3.simulator()  # Coroutine
next(sim)  # Initialize
print(sim.send({'x': 0, 'y': 0}))
print(sim.send({'x': 1, 'y': 2}))
print(sim.send({'x': 3, 'y': 4}))

# Unroll
aig4 = aig3.unroll(steps=10, init=True)

Useful circuits

# Fix input x to be False.
aig4 = aiger.source({'x': False}) >> aig3

# Remove output y. 
aig4 = aig3 >> aiger.sink(['y'])

# Create duplicate w of output y.
aig4 = aig3 >> aiger.tee({'y': ['y', 'w']})

# Make an AND gate.
aiger.and_gate(['x', 'y'], out='name')

# Make an OR gate.
aiger.or_gate(['x', 'y'])  # Default output name is #or_output.

# And outputs.
aig1 >> aiger.and_gate(aig1.outputs) # Default output name is #and_output.

# Or outputs.
aig1 >> aiger.or_gate(inputs=aig1.outputs, output='my_output')

# Flip outputs.
aig1 >> aiger.bit_flipper(inputs=aig1.outputs)

# Flip inputs.
aiger.bit_flipper(inputs=aig1.inputs) >> aig1

# ITE circuit
# ['o1', 'o2'] = ['i1', 'i2'] if 'test' Else ['i3', 'i4'] 
aiger.common.ite('test', ['i1', 'i2'], ['i3', 'i4'], outputs=['o1', 'o2'])


aiger.common.eval_order(aig1)  # Returns topological ordering of circuit gates.

# Convert object into an AIG from multiple formats including BoolExpr, AIG, str, and filepaths.


<figure> py-aiger ecosystem <figcaption>Overview of the pyaiger ecosystem/stack.</figcaption> </figure>


  • py-aiger-bv: Extension of pyAiger for manipulating sequential bitvector circuits.
  • py-aiger-cnf: BoolExpr to Object representing CNF. Mostly used for interfacing with py-aiger-sat.
  • py-aiger-past-ltl: Converts Past Linear Temporal Logic to aiger circuits.


Related Projects

  • pyAig: Another python library for working with AIGER circuits.


  author       = {Marcell Vazquez-Chanlatte},
  title        = {mvcisback/py-aiger},
  month        = aug,
  year         = 2018,
  doi          = {10.5281/zenodo.1326224},
  url          = {}

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