Project-level Python virtual environment management tool.
PyEM manages multiple virtual environments local to projects. It provides shortcuts to create, remove, switch between, and run commands against virtual environments created against various Python interpreters.
I recommend using pipx:
pipx install pyem # If you need to support Python without the builtin venv module. pipx inject pyem virtualenv
Add a virtual environment besides the file pyproject.toml:
# Based on a command. pyem venv add python3.7 # Based on interpreter found by the Python launcher. pyem venv add 3.6 # Based on an executable. pyem venv add /usr/local/bin/pypy3
The second variant relies on the Python launcher to locate an interpreter. This tool should be installed by default if you use the officlal installer on Windows (and do not explicitly choose not to install it). For other platforms, Python launcher for UNIX by Brett Cannon can be used as an alternative.
List managed virtual environments:
$ pyem venv list Quintuplet ============================================= cpython-3.6-darwin-x86_64-f14a3513 cpython-3.7-darwin-x86_64-dbe83ac5 * pypy-3.6-darwin-x86_64-dc1298a1
Set active virtual environment:
$ pyem venv set 3.7 Switched to cpython-3.7-darwin-x86_64-dbe83ac5 $ pyem venv set 3.6 Error: name '3.6' is ambiguous; choose from: cpython-3.6-darwin-x86_64-f14a3513 pypy-3.6-darwin-x86_64-dc1298a1 $ pyem venv set cpython-3.6 Switched to cpython-3.6-darwin-x86_64-f14a3513
Run a command inside a virtual environment:
$ pyem poetry run python -c "import sys; print(sys.executable)" /tmp/exampleproject/.venvs/bin/python $ pyem --spec=pypy-3.6 pipenv run pypy3 -c "import sys; print(sys.executable)" /tmp/exampleproject/.venvs/bin/pypy3
How does this work?
PyEM sets environment variables VIRTUAL_ENV and PATH, and hand off control to subprocess for the command specified. This is enough to trick a lot of Python project tools, including the Python launcher, Poetry, and Pipenv. Python interpreters with venv support (e.g. CPython 3.3 or later) should also integrate seamlessly.
Tips and Tricks
Flit on Windows
Flit has problems detecting the active virtual environment on Windows when installed into Python 3.7.2 or later. Use the following workaround (requires the Python launcher):
$ pyem flit install --python=py
Starting from Flit 2.1, you can also set the environment variable FLIT_INSTALL_PYTHON=py for the same effect. This is a good default even when you’re not using PyEM IMO; it makes more sense than installing into Flit’s environment.
This has been fixed in master (takluyver/flit#300), so Flit after 2.1.0 does not need this workaround.
Project without pyproject.toml
If your project does not use pyproject.toml, you can specify the project root explicitly:
pyem --project=./myproject add 3.8
The --project option is only required when creating a virtual environment. Subsequent commands should pick up the .venvs directory automatically, and use its location as the project root, even without the presence of pyproject.toml.
Call a virtual environment outside the project root
The --project option is also handy if you want to access a virtual environment when you’re outside of the project root. This command lists installed packages in the 3.7 virtual environment of another-project:
pyem --project=../another-project --python=3.7 pip list
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