A minimal PyPI server for use with pip/easy_install.
|Maintainer:||Kostis Anagnostopoulos <firstname.lastname@example.org>|
|License:||zlib/libpng + MIT|
Table of Contents
- Quickstart: Installation and Usage
- Alternative Installation methods
- Detailed Usage
- Similar Projects
pypiserver is a minimal PyPI compatible server. It can be used to upload and serve packages, wheels and eggs to pip or easy_install. The packages are stored in regular directories.
pypiserver will work with python 2.5 –> 2.7 and 3.2 –> 3.4. Python 3.0 and 3.1 may also work, but pypiserver is not being tested with these versions.
Run the following commands to get your PyPI server up and running:
## Installation. pip install pypiserver[passlib] mkdir ~/packages ## Copy packages into this directory. ## Start server. pypi-server -p 8080 ~/packages & ## Will listen to all IPs. ## Download and Install hosted packages. pip install --extra-index-url http://localhost:8080/simple/ ...
See also Client-side configurations for avoiding tedious typing.
The above commands work on a unix-like operating system with a posix shell. The ~ character expands to user’s home directory.
If you’re using windows, you’ll have to use their “windows counterparts”. The same is true for the rest of this documentation.
Instead of copying packages directly to the server’s folder, you may also upload them remotely with a python setup.py upload command. Currently only password-protected uploads are supported!
First make sure you have the passlib module installed, which is needed for parsing the apache htpasswd file specified by the -P, –passwords option (see next steps):
pip install passlib
Create the apache htpasswd file with at least one user/password pair with this command (you’ll be prompted for a password):
htpasswd -sc .htaccess <some_username>
Read this SO question for running htpasswd cmd under Windows:
or if you have bogus passwords for an internal service you may use this public service:
It is also possible to disable authentication even for uploads. To avoid lazy security decisions, read help for -P and -a options.
You need to restart the server with the -P option only once (but user/password pairs can later be added or updated on the fly):
./pypi-server -p 8080 -P .htaccess ~/packages &
On client-side, edit or create a ~/.pypirc file with a similar content:
[distutils] index-servers = pypi local [pypi] username:<your_pypi_username> password:<your_pypi_passwd> [local] repository: http://localhost:8080 username: <some_username> password: <some_passwd>
Then from within the directory of the python-project you wish to upload, issue this command:
python setup.py sdist upload -r local
- To avoid storing you passwords on disk in clear text, you may either:
Use the register command with the -r option, like that:
python setup.py sdist register -r local upload -r local
Use twine library which breaks the procedure in two steps.
Always specifying the the pypi url on the command line is a bit cumbersome. Since pypi-server redirects pip/easy_install to the pypi.python.org index if it doesn’t have a requested package, it’s a good idea to configure them to always use your local pypi index.
For pip this can be done by setting the environment variable PIP_EXTRA_INDEX_URL in your .bashrc/.profile/.zshrc:
or by adding the following lines to ~/.pip/pip.conf:
[global] extra-index-url = http://localhost:8080/simple/
If you have installed pypi-server on a remote url without https you wil receive an “untrusted” warning from pip, urging you to append the –trusted-host option. You can also include this option permanently in your configuration-files or environment variables.
For easy_install it can be configured with the following setting in ~/.pydistutils.cfg:
[easy_install] index_url = http://localhost:8080/simple/
When trying the methods below, first use the following command to check whether previous versions of pypiserver already exist, and (optionally) uninstall them:
## VERSION-CHECK: Fails if not installed. pypi-server --version ## UNINSTALL: Invoke again untill it fails. pip uninstall pypiserver
In case the latest version in pypi is a pre-release, you have to use pip’s –pre option. And to update an existing installation combine it with –ignore-installed:
pip install pypiserver --pre -I
You can even install the latest pypiserver directly from github with the following command, assuming you have git installed on your $PATH:
pip install git+git://github.com/pypiserver/pypiserver.git
The git repository contains a pypi-server-standalone.py script, which is a single python file that can be executed without any other dependencies.
Run the following commands to download the script with wget:
wget https://raw.github.com/pypiserver/pypiserver/standalone/pypi-server-standalone.py chmod +x pypi-server-standalone.py
or with curl:
curl -O https://raw.github.com/pypiserver/pypiserver/standalone/pypi-server-standalone.py chmod +x pypi-server-standalone.py
You can then start-up the server with:
Feel free to rename the script and move it into your $PATH.
https://github.com/dexterous/pypiserver-on-the-cloud contains instructions on how to run pypiserver on one of the supported cloud service providers.
Running pypi-server -h will print a detailed usage message:
pypi-server [OPTIONS] [PACKAGES_DIRECTORY...] start PyPI compatible package server serving packages from PACKAGES_DIRECTORY. If PACKAGES_DIRECTORY is not given on the command line, it uses the default ~/packages. pypiserver scans this directory recursively for packages. It skips packages and directories starting with a dot. Multiple package directories can be specified. pypi-server understands the following options: -p, --port PORT listen on port PORT (default: 8080) -i, --interface INTERFACE listen on interface INTERFACE (default: 0.0.0.0, any interface) -a, --authenticate (UPDATE|download|list), ... comma-separated list of (case-insensitive) actions to authenticate Use '.' or '' for empty. Requires to have set the password (-P option). For example to password-protect package downloads (in addition to uploads) while leaving listings public, give: -P foo/htpasswd.txt -a update,download To drop all authentications, use: -P . -a . Note that when uploads are not protected, the `register` command is not necessary, but `~/.pypirc` still need username and password fields, even if bogus. By default, only 'update' is password-protected. -P, --passwords PASSWORD_FILE use apache htpasswd file PASSWORD_FILE to set usernames & passwords when authenticating certain actions (see -a option). If you want to allow un-authorized access, set this option and -a explicitly to empty (either '.' or''). --disable-fallback disable redirect to real PyPI index for packages not found in the local index --fallback-url FALLBACK_URL for packages not found in the local index, this URL will be used to redirect to (default: http://pypi.python.org/simple) --server METHOD use METHOD to run the server. Valid values include paste, cherrypy, twisted, gunicorn, gevent, wsgiref, auto. The default is to use "auto" which chooses one of paste, cherrypy, twisted or wsgiref. -r, --root PACKAGES_DIRECTORY [deprecated] serve packages from PACKAGES_DIRECTORY -o, --overwrite allow overwriting existing package files --hash-algo ALGO any `hashlib` available algo used as fragments on package links. Set one of (0, no, off, false) to disabled it. (default: md5) --welcome HTML_FILE uses the ASCII contents of HTML_FILE as welcome message response. -v enable INFO logging; repeat for more verbosity. --log-conf <FILE> read logging configuration from FILE. By default, configuration is read from `log.conf` if found in server's dir. --log-file <FILE> write logging info into this FILE. --log-frmt <FILE> the logging format-string. (see `logging.LogRecord` class from standard python library) [Default: %(asctime)s|%(name)s|%(levelname)s|%(thread)d|%(message)s] --log-req-frmt FORMAT a format-string selecting Http-Request properties to log; set to '%s' to see them all. [Default: %(bottle.request)s] --log-res-frmt FORMAT a format-string selecting Http-Response properties to log; set to '%s' to see them all. [Default: %(status)s] --log-err-frmt FORMAT a format-string selecting Http-Error properties to log; set to '%s' to see them all. [Default: %(body)s: %(exception)s \n%(traceback)s] pypi-server -h pypi-server --help show this help message pypi-server --version show pypi-server's version pypi-server -U [OPTIONS] [PACKAGES_DIRECTORY...] update packages in PACKAGES_DIRECTORY. This command searches pypi.python.org for updates and shows a pip command line which updates the package. The following additional options can be specified with -U: -x execute the pip commands instead of only showing them -d DOWNLOAD_DIRECTORY download package updates to this directory. The default is to use the directory which contains the latest version of the package to be updated. -u allow updating to unstable version (alpha, beta, rc, dev versions) Visit https://github.com/pypiserver/pypiserver for more information.
The pypi-server command has the -U option that searches for updates of available packages. It scans the package directory for available packages and searches on pypi.python.org for updates. Without further options pypi-server -U will just print a list of commands which must be run in order to get the latest version of each package. Output looks like:
$ ./pypi-server -U checking 106 packages for newer version .........u.e...........e..u............. .....e..............................e... .......................... no releases found on pypi for PyXML, Pymacs, mercurial, setuptools # update raven from 1.4.3 to 1.4.4 pip -q install --no-deps --extra-index-url http://pypi.python.org/simple -d /home/ralf/packages/mirror raven==1.4.4 # update greenlet from 0.3.3 to 0.3.4 pip -q install --no-deps --extra-index-url http://pypi.python.org/simple -d /home/ralf/packages/mirror greenlet==0.3.4
It first prints for each package a single character after checking the available versions on pypi. A dot(.) means the package is up-to-date, u means the package can be updated and e means the list of releases on pypi is empty. After that it shows a pip command line which can be used to update a one package. Either copy and paste that or run pypi-server -Ux in order to really execute those commands. You need to have pip installed for that to work however.
Specifying an additional -u option will also allow alpha, beta and release candidates to be downloaded. Without this option these releases won’t be considered.
pypiserver ships with it’s own copy of bottle. It’s possible to use bottle with different WSGI servers.
pypiserver chooses any of the following paste, cherrypy, twisted, wsgiref (part of python) if available.
If none of the above servers matches your needs, pypiserver also exposes an API to get the internal WSGI app, which you can then run under any WSGI server you like. pypiserver.app has the following interface:
def app(root=None, redirect_to_fallback=True, fallback_url="http://pypi.python.org/simple")
and returns the WSGI application. root is the package directory, redirect_to_fallback specifies whether to redirect to fallback_url when a package is missing.
The following command uses gunicorn to start pypiserver:
gunicorn -w4 'pypiserver:app("/home/ralf/packages")'
or when using multiple roots:
gunicorn -w4 'pypiserver:app(["/home/ralf/packages", "/home/ralf/experimental"])'
In case you’re using apache2 with mod_wsgi, the following config-file (contributed by Thomas Waldmann) can be used:
# An example pypiserver.wsgi for use with apache2 and mod_wsgi, edit as necessary. # # apache virtualhost configuration for mod_wsgi daemon mode: # Alias /robots.txt /srv/yoursite/htdocs/robots.txt # WSGIPassAuthorization On # WSGIScriptAlias / /srv/yoursite/cfg/pypiserver.wsgi # WSGIDaemonProcess pypisrv user=pypisrv group=pypisrv processes=1 threads=5 maximum-requests=500 umask=0007 display-name=wsgi-pypisrv inactivity-timeout=300 # WSGIProcessGroup pypisrv PACKAGES = "/srv/yoursite/packages" HTPASSWD = "/srv/yoursite/htpasswd" import pypiserver application = pypiserver.app(PACKAGES, redirect_to_fallback=True, password_file=HTPASSWD)
paste allows to run multiple WSGI applications under different URL paths. Therefore it’s possible to serve different set of packages on different paths.
The following example paste.ini could be used to serve stable and unstable packages on different paths:
[composite:main] use = egg:Paste#urlmap /unstable/ = unstable / = stable [app:stable] use = egg:pypiserver#main root = ~/stable-packages [app:unstable] use = egg:pypiserver#main root = ~/stable-packages ~/unstable-packages [server:main] use = egg:gunicorn#main host = 0.0.0.0 port = 9000 workers = 5 accesslog = -
You need to install some more dependencies for this to work, e.g. run:
pip install paste pastedeploy gunicorn pypiserver
The server can then be started with:
git clone https://github.com/pypiserver/pypiserver.git
to create a copy of the repository, then:
inside the copy to receive any later changes.
pypiserver does not implement the full API as seen on PyPI. It implements just enough to make easy_install and pip install to work.
The following limitations are known:
- It doesn’t implement the XMLRPC json API interface: pip search will not work.
- Command pypi -U that compares uploaded packages with pypi to see if they are outdated does not respect a http-proxy environment variable (see https://github.com/pypiserver/pypiserver/issues/19).
- It accepts documentation uploads but does not save them to disk (see https://github.com/pypiserver/pypiserver/issues/47 for a discussion)
- It does not handle misspelled packages as pypi-repo does, therefore it is suggested to use it with –extra-index-url instead of –index-url (see https://github.com/pypiserver/pypiserver/issues/38)
Please use github’s bugtracker if you find any other bugs.
There are lots of other projects, which allow you to run your own PyPI server. If pypiserver doesn’t work for you, the following are among the most popular alternatives:
- devpi-server: a reliable fast pypi.python.org caching server, part of the comprehensive github-style pypi index server and packaging meta tool. (version: 2.1.4, access date: 8/3/2015)
- pip2pi a simple cmd-line tool that builds a PyPI-compatible local folder from pip requirements (version: 0.6.7, access date: 8/3/2015)
- Check this SO question: ` How to roll my own pypi <http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1235331/how-to-roll-my-own-pypi>`_
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