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The Pyramid web application framework, a Pylons project

Project description

Pyramid

Pyramid is a small, fast, down-to-earth, open source Python web development framework. It makes real-world web application development and deployment more fun, more predictable, and more productive.

Pyramid is a Pylons project, and underlies the newest web frameworks produced by the Pylons community.

Pyramid was previously known as repoze.bfg.

Support and Documentation

See the Pylons Project website to view documentation, report bugs, and obtain support.

License

Pyramid is offered under the BSD-derived Repoze Public License.

Authors

Pyramid is made available by Agendaless Consulting and a team of contributors.

1.0a6 (2010-12-15)

Bug Fixes

  • 1.0a5 introduced a bug when pyramid.config.Configurator.scan was used without a package argument (e.g. config.scan() as opposed to config.scan('packagename'). The symptoms were: lots of deprecation warnings printed to the console about imports of deprecated Pyramid functions and classes and non-detection of view callables decorated with view_config decorators. This has been fixed.
  • Tests now pass on Windows (no bugs found, but a few tests in the test suite assumed UNIX path segments in filenames).

Documentation

  • If you followed it to-the-letter, the ZODB+Traversal Wiki tutorial would instruct you to run a test which would fail because the view callable generated by the pyramid_zodb tutorial used a one-arg view callable, but the test in the sample code used a two-arg call.
  • Updated ZODB+Traversal tutorial setup.py of all steps to match what’s generated by pyramid_zodb.
  • Fix reference to repoze.bfg.traversalwrapper in “Models” chapter (point at pyramid_traversalwrapper instead).

1.0a5 (2010-12-14)

Features

  • Add a handler ZCML directive. This directive does the same thing as pyramid.configuration.add_handler.
  • A new module named pyramid.config was added. It subsumes the duties of the older pyramid.configuration module.
  • The new pyramid.config.Configurator` class has API methods that the older ``pyramid.configuration.Configurator class did not: with_context (a classmethod), include, action, and commit. These methods exist for imperative application extensibility purposes.
  • The pyramid.testing.setUp function now accepts an autocommit keyword argument, which defaults to True. If it is passed False, the Config object returned by setUp will be a non-autocommiting Config object.
  • Add logging configuration to all paster templates.
  • pyramid_alchemy, pyramid_routesalchemy, and pylons_sqla paster templates now use idiomatic SQLAlchemy configuration in their respective .ini files and Python code.
  • pyramid.testing.DummyRequest now has a class variable, query_string, which defaults to the empty string.
  • Add support for json on GAE by catching NotImplementedError and importing simplejson from django.utils.
  • The Mako renderer now accepts a resource specification for mako.module_directory.
  • New boolean Mako settings variable mako.strict_undefined. See Mako Context Variables for its meaning.

Dependencies

  • Depend on Mako 0.3.6+ (we now require the strict_undefined feature).

Bug Fixes

  • When creating a Configurator from within a paster pshell session, you were required to pass a package argument although package is not actually required. If you didn’t pass package, you would receive an error something like KeyError: '__name__' emanating from the pyramid.path.caller_module function. This has now been fixed.
  • The pyramid_routesalchemy paster template’s unit tests failed (AssertionError: 'SomeProject' != 'someproject'). This is fixed.
  • Make default renderer work (renderer factory registered with no name, which is active for every view unless the view names a specific renderer).
  • The Mako renderer did not properly turn the mako.imports, mako.default_filters, and mako.imports settings into lists.
  • The Mako renderer did not properly convert the mako.error_handler setting from a dotted name to a callable.

Documentation

  • Merged many wording, readability, and correctness changes to narrative documentation chapters from https://github.com/caseman/pyramid (up to and including “Models” narrative chapter).
  • “Sample Applications” section of docs changed to note existence of Cluegun, Shootout and Virginia sample applications, ported from their repoze.bfg origin packages.
  • SQLAlchemy+URLDispatch tutorial updated to integrate changes to pyramid_routesalchemy template.
  • Add pyramid.interfaces.ITemplateRenderer interface to Interfaces API chapter (has implementation() method, required to be used when getting at Chameleon macros).
  • Add a “Modifying Package Structure” section to the project narrative documentation chapter (explain turning a module into a package).
  • Documentation was added for the new handler ZCML directive in the ZCML section.

Deprecations

  • pyramid.configuration.Configurator is now deprecated. Use pyramid.config.Configurator, passing its constructor autocommit=True instead. The pyramid.configuration.Configurator alias will live for a long time, as every application uses it, but its import now issues a deprecation warning. The pyramid.config.Configurator class has the same API as pyramid.configuration.Configurator class, which it means to replace, except by default it is a non-autocommitting configurator. The now-deprecated pyramid.configuration.Configurator will autocommit every time a configuration method is called.

    The pyramid.configuration module remains, but it is deprecated. Use pyramid.config instead.

1.0a4 (2010-11-21)

Features

  • URL Dispatch now allows for replacement markers to be located anywhere in the pattern, instead of immediately following a /.
  • URL Dispatch now uses the form {marker} to denote a replace marker in the route pattern instead of :marker. The old colon-style marker syntax is still accepted for backwards compatibility. The new format allows a regular expression for that marker location to be used instead of the default [^/]+, for example {marker:\d+} is now valid to require the marker to be digits.
  • Add a pyramid.url.route_path API, allowing folks to generate relative URLs. Calling route_path is the same as calling pyramid.url.route_url with the argument _app_url equal to the empty string.
  • Add a pyramid.request.Request.route_path API. This is a convenience method of the request which calls pyramid.url.route_url.
  • Make test suite pass on Jython (requires PasteScript trunk, presumably to be 1.7.4).
  • Make test suite pass on PyPy (Chameleon doesn’t work).
  • Surrounding application configuration with config.begin() and config.end() is no longer necessary. All paster templates have been changed to no longer call these functions.
  • Fix configurator to not convert ImportError to ConfigurationError if the import that failed was unrelated to the import requested via a dotted name when resolving dotted names (such as view dotted names).

Documentation

  • SQLAlchemy+URLDispatch and ZODB+Traversal tutorials have been updated to not call config.begin() or config.end().

Bug Fixes

  • Add deprecation warnings to import of pyramid.chameleon_text and pyramid.chameleon_zpt of get_renderer, get_template, render_template, and render_template_to_response.
  • Add deprecation warning for import of pyramid.zcml.zcml_configure and pyramid.zcml.file_configure.
  • The pyramid_alchemy paster template had a typo, preventing an import from working.
  • Fix apparent failures when calling pyramid.traversal.find_model(root, path) or pyramid.traversal.traverse(path) when path is (erroneously) a Unicode object. The user is meant to pass these APIs a string object, never a Unicode object. In practice, however, users indeed pass Unicode. Because the string that is passed must be ASCII encodeable, now, if they pass a Unicode object, its data is eagerly converted to an ASCII string rather than being passed along to downstream code as a convenience to the user and to prevent puzzling second-order failures from cropping up (all failures will occur within pyramid.traversal.traverse rather than later down the line as the result of calling e.g. traversal_path).

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The pyramid.testing.zcml_configure API has been removed. It had been advertised as removed since repoze.bfg 1.2a1, but hadn’t actually been.

Deprecations

  • The pyramid.settings.get_settings API is now deprecated. Use pyramid.threadlocals.get_current_registry().settings instead or use the settings attribute of the registry available from the request (request.registry.settings).

Documentation

  • Removed zodbsessions tutorial chapter. It’s still useful, but we now have a SessionFactory abstraction which competes with it, and maintaining documentation on both ways to do it is a distraction.

Internal

  • Replace Twill with WebTest in internal integration tests (avoid deprecation warnings generated by Twill).

1.0a3 (2010-11-16)

Features

  • Added Mako TemplateLookup settings for mako.error_handler, mako.default_filters, and mako.imports.
  • Normalized all paster templates: each now uses the name main to represent the function that returns a WSGI application, each now uses WebError, each now has roughly the same shape of development.ini style.
  • Added class vars matchdict and matched_route to pyramid.request.Request. Each is set to None.
  • New API method: pyramid.settings.asbool.
  • New API methods for pyramid.request.Request: model_url, route_url, and static_url. These are simple passthroughs for their respective functions in pyramid.url.
  • The settings object which used to be available only when request.settings.get_settings was called is now available as registry.settings (e.g. request.registry.settings in view code).

Bug Fixes

  • The pylons_* paster templates erroneously used the {squiggly} routing syntax as the pattern supplied to add_route. This style of routing is not supported. They were replaced with :colon style route patterns.
  • The pylons_* paster template used the same string (your_app_secret_string) for the session.secret setting in the generated development.ini. This was a security risk if left unchanged in a project that used one of the templates to produce production applications. It now uses a randomly generated string.

Documentation

  • ZODB+traversal wiki (wiki) tutorial updated due to changes to pyramid_zodb paster template.
  • SQLAlchemy+urldispach wiki (wiki2) tutorial updated due to changes to pyramid_routesalchemy paster template.
  • Documented the matchdict and matched_route attributes of the request object in the Request API documentation.

Deprecations

  • Obtaining the settings object via registry.{get|query}Utility(ISettings) is now deprecated. Instead, obtain the settings object via the registry.settings attribute. A backwards compatibility shim was added to the registry object to register the settings object as an ISettings utility when setattr(registry, 'settings', foo) is called, but it will be removed in a later release.
  • Obtaining the settings object via pyramid.settings.get_settings is now deprecated. Obtain it as the settings attribute of the registry now (obtain the registry via pyramid.threadlocal.get_registry or as request.registry).

Behavior Differences

  • Internal: ZCML directives no longer call get_current_registry() if there’s a registry attribute on the ZCML context (kill off use of threadlocals).
  • Internal: Chameleon template renderers now accept two arguments: path and lookup. Lookup will be an instance of a lookup class which supplies (late-bound) arguments for debug, reload, and translate. Any third-party renderers which use (the non-API) function pyramid.renderers.template_renderer_factory will need to adjust their implementations to obey the new callback argument list. This change was to kill off inappropriate use of threadlocals.

1.0a2 (2010-11-09)

Documentation

  • All references to events by interface (e.g. pyramid.interfaces.INewRequest) have been changed to reference their concrete classes (e.g. pyramid.events.NewRequest) in documentation about making subscriptions.
  • All references to Pyramid-the-application were changed from mod-pyramid to app-Pyramid. A custom role setting was added to docs/conf.py to allow for this. (internal)

1.0a1 (2010-11-05)

Features (delta from BFG 1.3)

  • Mako templating renderer supports resource specification format for template lookups and within Mako templates. Absolute filenames must be used in Pyramid to avoid this lookup process.

  • Add pyramid.httpexceptions module, which is a facade for the webob.exc module.

  • Direct built-in support for the Mako templating language.

  • A new configurator method exists: add_handler. This method adds a Pylons-style “view handler” (such a thing used to be called a “controller” in Pylons 1.0).

  • New argument to configurator: session_factory.

  • New method on configurator: set_session_factory

  • Using request.session now returns a (dictionary-like) session object if a session factory has been configured.

  • The request now has a new attribute: tmpl_context for benefit of Pylons users.

  • The decorator previously known as pyramid.view.bfg_view is now known most formally as pyramid.view.view_config in docs and paster templates. An import of pyramid.view.bfg_view, however, will continue to work “forever”.

  • New API methods in pyramid.session: signed_serialize and signed_deserialize.

  • New interface: pyramid.interfaces.IRendererInfo. An object of this type is passed to renderer factory constructors (see “Backwards Incompatibilities”).

  • New event type: pyramid.interfaces.IBeforeRender. An object of this type is sent as an event before a renderer is invoked (but after the application-level renderer globals factory added via pyramid.configurator.configuration.set_renderer_globals_factory, if any, has injected its own keys). Applications may now subscribe to the IBeforeRender event type in order to introspect the and modify the set of renderer globals before they are passed to a renderer. The event object iself has a dictionary-like interface that can be used for this purpose. For example:

    from repoze.events import subscriber
    from pyramid.interfaces import IRendererGlobalsEvent
    
    @subscriber(IRendererGlobalsEvent)
    def add_global(event):
        event['mykey'] = 'foo'
    

    If a subscriber attempts to add a key that already exist in the renderer globals dictionary, a KeyError is raised. This limitation is due to the fact that subscribers cannot be ordered relative to each other. The set of keys added to the renderer globals dictionary by all subscribers and app-level globals factories must be unique.

  • New class: pyramid.response.Response. This is a pure facade for webob.Response (old code need not change to use this facade, it’s existence is mostly for vanity and documentation-generation purposes).

  • All preexisting paster templates (except zodb) now use “imperative” configuration (starter, routesalchemy, alchemy).

  • A new paster template named pyramid_starter_zcml exists, which uses declarative configuration.

Documentation (delta from BFG 1.3)

  • Added a pyramid.httpexceptions API documentation chapter.
  • Added a pyramid.session API documentation chapter.
  • Added a Session Objects narrative documentation chapter.
  • Added an API chapter for the pyramid.personality module.
  • Added an API chapter for the pyramid.response module.
  • All documentation which previously referred to webob.Response now uses pyramid.response.Response instead.
  • The documentation has been overhauled to use imperative configuration, moving declarative configuration (ZCML) explanations to a separate narrative chapter declarative.rst.
  • The ZODB Wiki tutorial was updated to take into account changes to the pyramid_zodb paster template.
  • The SQL Wiki tutorial was updated to take into account changes to the pyramid_routesalchemy paster template.

Backwards Incompatibilities (with BFG 1.3)

  • There is no longer an IDebugLogger registered as a named utility with the name repoze.bfg.debug.

  • The logger which used to have the name of repoze.bfg.debug now has the name pyramid.debug.

  • The deprecated API pyramid.testing.registerViewPermission has been removed.

  • The deprecated API named pyramid.testing.registerRoutesMapper has been removed.

  • The deprecated API named pyramid.request.get_request was removed.

  • The deprecated API named pyramid.security.Unauthorized was removed.

  • The deprecated API named pyramid.view.view_execution_permitted was removed.

  • The deprecated API named pyramid.view.NotFound was removed.

  • The bfgshell paster command is now named pshell.

  • The Venusian “category” for all built-in Venusian decorators (e.g. subscriber and view_config/bfg_view) is now pyramid instead of bfg.

  • pyramid.renderers.rendered_response function removed; use render_pyramid.renderers.render_to_response instead.

  • Renderer factories now accept a renderer info object rather than an absolute resource specification or an absolute path. The object has the following attributes: name (the renderer= value), package (the ‘current package’ when the renderer configuration statement was found), type: the renderer type, registry: the current registry, and settings: the deployment settings dictionary.

    Third-party repoze.bfg renderer implementations that must be ported to Pyramid will need to account for this.

    This change was made primarily to support more flexible Mako template rendering.

  • The presence of the key repoze.bfg.message in the WSGI environment when an exception occurs is now deprecated. Instead, code which relies on this environ value should use the exception attribute of the request (e.g. request.exception[0]) to retrieve the message.

  • The values bfg_localizer and bfg_locale_name kept on the request during internationalization for caching purposes were never APIs. These however have changed to localizer and locale_name, respectively.

  • The default cookie_name value of the authtktauthenticationpolicy ZCML now defaults to auth_tkt (it used to default to repoze.bfg.auth_tkt).

  • The default cookie_name value of the pyramid.authentication.AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy constructor now defaults to auth_tkt (it used to default to repoze.bfg.auth_tkt).

  • The request_type argument to the view ZCML directive, the pyramid.configuration.Configurator.add_view method, or the pyramid.view.view_config decorator (nee bfg_view) is no longer permitted to be one of the strings GET, HEAD, PUT, POST or DELETE, and now must always be an interface. Accepting the method-strings as request_type was a backwards compatibility strategy servicing repoze.bfg 1.0 applications. Use the request_method parameter instead to specify that a view a string request-method predicate.

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