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The Pyramid Web Framework, a Pylons project

Project description


Pyramid is a small, fast, down-to-earth, open source Python web framework. It makes real-world web application development and deployment more fun, more predictable, and more productive.

Pyramid is produced by the Pylons Project.

Support and Documentation

See the Pylons Project website to view documentation, report bugs, and obtain support.


Pyramid is offered under the BSD-derived Repoze Public License.


Pyramid is made available by Agendaless Consulting and a team of contributors.

1.5a1 (2013-08-30)


  • A new http exception subclass named pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPSuccessful was added. You can use this class as the context of an exception view to catch all 200-series “exceptions” (e.g. “raise HTTPOk”). This also allows you to catch only the HTTPOk exception itself; previously this was impossible because a number of other exceptions (such as HTTPNoContent) inherited from HTTPOk, but now they do not.

  • You can now generate “hybrid” urldispatch/traversal URLs more easily by using the new route_name, route_kw and route_remainder_name arguments to request.resource_url and request.resource_path. See the new section of the “Combining Traversal and URL Dispatch” documentation chapter entitled “Hybrid URL Generation”.

  • It is now possible to escape double braces in Pyramid scaffolds (unescaped, these represent replacement values). You can use \{\{a\}\} to represent a “bare” {{a}}. See

  • Add localizer and locale_name properties (reified) to the request. See Note that the pyramid.i18n.get_localizer and pyramid.i18n.get_locale_name functions now simply look up these properties on the request.

  • Add pdistreport script, which prints the Python version in use, the Pyramid version in use, and the version number and location of all Python distributions currently installed.

  • Add the ability to invert the result of any view, route, or subscriber predicate using the not_ class. For example:

    from pyramid.config import not_
    @view_config(route_name='myroute', request_method=not_('POST'))
    def myview(request): ...

    The above example will ensure that the view is called if the request method is not POST (at least if no other view is more specific).

    The pyramid.config.not_ class can be used against any value that is a predicate value passed in any of these contexts:

    • pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view
    • pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route
    • pyramid.config.Configurator.add_subscriber
    • pyramid.view.view_config
  • scripts/ add support for submitting PUT and PATCH requests. See add support for submitting OPTIONS and PROPFIND requests, and allow users to specify basic authentication credentials in the request via a --login argument to the script. See

  • ACLAuthorizationPolicy supports __acl__ as a callable. This removes the ambiguity between the potential AttributeError that would be raised on the context when the property was not defined and the AttributeError that could be raised from any user-defined code within a dynamic property. It is recommended to define a dynamic ACL as a callable to avoid this ambiguity. See

  • Allow a protocol-relative URL (e.g. // to be passed to pyramid.config.Configurator.add_static_view. This allows externally-hosted static URLs to be generated based on the current protocol.

  • The AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy has two new options to configure its domain usage:

    • parent_domain: if set the authentication cookie is set on the parent domain. This is useful if you have multiple sites sharing the same domain.
    • domain: if provided the cookie is always set for this domain, bypassing all usual logic.

    See, and

  • The AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy now supports IPv6 addresses when using the include_ip=True option. This is possibly incompatible with alternative auth_tkt implementations, as the specification does not define how to properly handle IPv6. See

  • Make it possible to use variable arguments via pyramid.paster.get_appsettings. This also allowed the generated initialize_db script from the alchemy scaffold to grow support for options in the form a=1 b=2 so you can fill in values in a parameterized .ini file, e.g. initialize_myapp_db etc/development.ini a=1 b=2. See

  • The request.session.check_csrf_token() method and the check_csrf view predicate now take into account the value of the HTTP header named X-CSRF-Token (as well as the csrf_token form parameter, which they always did). The header is tried when the form parameter does not exist.

  • View lookup will now search for valid views based on the inheritance hierarchy of the context. It tries to find views based on the most specific context first, and upon predicate failure, will move up the inheritance chain to test views found by the super-type of the context. In the past, only the most specific type containing views would be checked and if no matching view could be found then a PredicateMismatch would be raised. Now predicate mismatches don’t hide valid views registered on super-types. Here’s an example that now works:

    class IResource(Interface):
    def get(context, request):
    @view_config(context=IResource, request_method='POST')
    def post(context, request):
    @view_config(context=IResource, request_method='DELETE')
    def delete(context, request):
    class MyResource:
    @view_config(context=MyResource, request_method='POST')
    def override_post(context, request):

    Previously the override_post view registration would hide the get and delete views in the context of MyResource – leading to a predicate mismatch error when trying to use GET or DELETE methods. Now the views are found and no predicate mismatch is raised. See and and

  • The pserve command now takes a -v (or --verbose) flag and a -q (or --quiet) flag. Output from running pserve can be controlled using these flags. -v can be specified multiple times to increase verbosity. -q sets verbosity to 0 unconditionally. The default verbosity level is 1.

  • The alchemy scaffold tests now provide better coverage. See

  • The pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route method now supports being called with an external URL as pattern. See and the documentation section in the “URL Dispatch” chapter entitled “External Routes” for more information.

Bug Fixes

  • It was not possible to use pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPException as the context of an exception view as very general catchall for http-related exceptions when you wanted that exception view to override the default exception view. See
  • When the pyramid.reload_templates setting was true, and a Chameleon template was reloaded, and the renderer specification named a macro (e.g., renderings of the template after the template was reloaded due to a file change would produce the entire template body instead of just a rendering of the macro. See
  • Fix an obscure problem when combining a virtual root with a route with a *traverse in its pattern. Now the traversal path generated in such a configuration will be correct, instead of an element missing a leading slash.
  • Fixed a Mako renderer bug returning a tuple with a previous defname value in some circumstances. See for more information.
  • Make the pyramid.config.assets.PackageOverrides object implement the API for __loader__ objects specified in PEP 302. Proxies to the __loader__ set by the importer, if present; otherwise, raises NotImplementedError. This makes Pyramid static view overrides work properly under Python 3.3 (previously they would not). See for more information.
  • mako_templating: added defensive workaround for non-importability of mako due to upstream markupsafe dropping Python 3.2 support. Mako templating will no longer work under the combination of MarkupSafe 0.17 and Python 3.2 (although the combination of MarkupSafe 0.17 and Python 3.3 or any supported Python 2 version will work OK).
  • Spaces and dots may now be in mako renderer template paths. This was broken when support for the new makodef syntax was added in 1.4a1. See
  • pyramid.debug_authorization=true will now correctly print out Allowed for views registered with NO_PERMISSION_REQUIRED instead of invoking the permits method of the authorization policy. See
  • Pyramid failed to install on some systems due to being packaged with some test files containing higher order characters in their names. These files have now been removed. See
  • pyramid.testing.DummyResource didn’t define __bool__, so code under Python 3 would use __len__ to find truthiness; this usually caused an instance of DummyResource to be “falsy” instead of “truthy”. See
  • The alchemy scaffold would break when the database was MySQL during tables creation. See
  • The current_route_url method now attaches the query string to the URL by default. See
  • Make pserve.cherrypy_server_runner Python 3 compatible. See

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Modified the current_route_url method in pyramid.Request. The method previously returned the URL without the query string by default, it now does attach the query string unless it is overriden.
  • The route_url and route_path APIs no longer quote / to %2F when a replacement value contains a /. This was pointless, as WSGI servers always unquote the slash anyway, and Pyramid never sees the quoted value.
  • It is no longer possible to set a locale_name attribute of the request, nor is it possible to set a localizer attribute of the request. These are now “reified” properties that look up a locale name and localizer respectively using the machinery described in the “Internationalization” chapter of the documentation.
  • If you send an X-Vhm-Root header with a value that ends with a slash (or any number of slashes), the trailing slash(es) will be removed before a URL is generated when you use use request.resource_url or request.resource_path. Previously the virtual root path would not have trailing slashes stripped, which would influence URL generation.
  • The pyramid.interfaces.IResourceURL interface has now grown two new attributes: virtual_path_tuple and physical_path_tuple. These should be the tuple form of the resource’s path (physical and virtual).

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