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The Pyramid Web Framework, a Pylons project

Project description


1.7-branch Travis CI Status Master Documentation Status Latest Documentation Status IRC Freenode

Pyramid is a small, fast, down-to-earth, open source Python web framework. It makes real-world web application development and deployment more fun, more predictable, and more productive.

from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server
from pyramid.config import Configurator
from pyramid.response import Response

def hello_world(request):
    return Response('Hello %(name)s!' % request.matchdict)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    config = Configurator()
    config.add_route('hello', '/hello/{name}')
    config.add_view(hello_world, route_name='hello')
    app = config.make_wsgi_app()
    server = make_server('', 8080, app)

Pyramid is a project of the Pylons Project.

Support and Documentation

See Pyramid Support and Development for documentation, reporting bugs, and getting support.

Developing and Contributing

See HACKING.txt and for guidelines on running tests, adding features, coding style, and updating documentation when developing in or contributing to Pyramid.


Pyramid is offered under the BSD-derived Repoze Public License.


Pyramid is made available by Agendaless Consulting and a team of contributors.

1.7.3 (2016-08-17)

Bug Fixes

  • Oops, Apparently wheels do not build cleanly every time, so build artifacts from 1.6.3 creeped into the wheel for 1.7.2. Note to self: rm -rf build.

1.7.2 (2016-08-16)

  • Revert changes from #2706 released in Pyramid 1.7.1. JSON renderers will continue to return unicode data instead of UTF-8 encoded bytes. This means that WebOb responses are still expected to handle unicode data even though JSON does not have a charset. See

1.7.1 (2016-08-16)

1.7 (2016-05-19)

1.7b4 (2016-05-12)

  • Fixed the exception view tween to re-raise the original exception if no exception view could be found to handle the exception. This better allows tweens further up the chain to handle exceptions that were left unhandled. Previously they would be converted into a PredicateMismatch exception if predicates failed to allow the view to handle the exception. See
  • Exposed the pyramid.interfaces.IRequestFactory interface to mirror the public pyramid.interfaces.IResponseFactory interface.

1.7b3 (2016-05-10)

  • Fix request.invoke_exception_view to raise an HTTPNotFound exception if no view is matched. Previously None would be returned if no views were matched and a PredicateMismatch would be raised if a view “almost” matched (a view was found matching the context). See
  • Add defaults for py.test configuration and coverage to all three scaffolds, and update documentation accordingly. See
  • Add linkcheck to Makefile for Sphinx. To check the documentation for broken links, use the command make linkcheck SPHINXBUILD=$VENV/bin/sphinx-build. Also removed and fixed dozens of broken external links.
  • Fix the internal runner for scaffold tests to ensure they work with pip and py.test. See

1.7b2 (2016-05-01)

  • Removed inclusion of pyramid_tm in development.ini for alchemy scaffold See
  • A default permission set via config.set_default_permission will no longer be enforced on an exception view. This has been the case for a while with the default exception views (config.add_notfound_view and config.add_forbidden_view), however for any other exception view a developer had to remember to set permission=NO_PERMISSION_REQUIRED or be surprised when things didn’t work. It is still possible to force a permission check on an exception view by setting the permission argument manually to config.add_view. This behavior is consistent with the new CSRF features added in the 1.7 series. See

1.7b1 (2016-04-25)

1.7a2 (2016-04-19)


  • Automatic CSRF checks are now disabled by default on exception views. They can be turned back on by setting the appropriate require_csrf option on the view. See
  • The automatic CSRF API was reworked to use a config directive for setting the options. The pyramid.require_default_csrf setting is no longer supported. Instead, a new config.set_default_csrf_options directive has been introduced that allows the developer to specify the default value for require_csrf as well as change the CSRF token, header and safe request methods. The pyramid.csrf_trusted_origins setting is still supported. See

Bug fixes

1.7a1 (2016-04-16)

Backward Incompatibilities

  • Following the Pyramid deprecation period (1.4 -> 1.6), AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy’s default hashing algorithm is changing from md5 to sha512. If you are using the authentication policy and need to continue using md5, please explicitly set hashalg to ‘md5’.

    This change does mean that any existing auth tickets (and associated cookies) will no longer be valid, and users will no longer be logged in, and have to login to their accounts again.


  • The check_csrf_token function no longer validates a csrf token in the query string of a request. Only headers and request bodies are supported. See


  • Added a new setting, pyramid.require_default_csrf which may be used to turn on CSRF checks globally for every POST request in the application. This should be considered a good default for websites built on Pyramid. It is possible to opt-out of CSRF checks on a per-view basis by setting require_csrf=False on those views. See
  • Added a require_csrf view option which will enforce CSRF checks on any request with an unsafe method as defined by RFC2616. If the CSRF check fails a BadCSRFToken exception will be raised and may be caught by exception views (the default response is a 400 Bad Request). This option should be used in place of the deprecated check_csrf view predicate which would normally result in unexpected 404 Not Found response to the client instead of a catchable exception. See and
  • Added an additional CSRF validation that checks the origin/referrer of a request and makes sure it matches the current request.domain. This particular check is only active when accessing a site over HTTPS as otherwise browsers don’t always send the required information. If this additional CSRF validation fails a BadCSRFOrigin exception will be raised and may be caught by exception views (the default response is 400 Bad Request). Additional allowed origins may be configured by setting pyramid.csrf_trusted_origins to a list of domain names (with ports if on a non standard port) to allow. Subdomains are not allowed unless the domain name has been prefixed with a .. See
  • Added a new pyramid.session.check_csrf_origin API for validating the origin or referrer headers against the request’s domain. See
  • Pyramid HTTPExceptions will now take into account the best match for the clients Accept header, and depending on what is requested will return text/html, application/json or text/plain. The default for / is still text/html, but if application/json is explicitly mentioned it will now receive a valid JSON response. See
  • A new event and interface (BeforeTraversal) has been introduced that will notify listeners before traversal starts in the router. See and
  • Add a new “view deriver” concept to Pyramid to allow framework authors to inject elements into the standard Pyramid view pipeline and affect all views in an application. This is similar to a decorator except that it has access to options passed to config.add_view and can affect other stages of the pipeline such as the raw response from a view or prior to security checks. See
  • Allow a leading = on the key of the request param predicate. For example, ‘=abc=1’ is equivalent down to request.params['=abc'] == '1'. See
  • A new request.invoke_exception_view(...) method which can be used to invoke an exception view and get back a response. This is useful for rendering an exception view outside of the context of the excview tween where you may need more control over the request. See
  • Allow using variable substitutions like %(LOGGING_LOGGER_ROOT_LEVEL)s for logging sections of the .ini file and populate these variables from the pserve command line – e.g.: pserve development.ini LOGGING_LOGGER_ROOT_LEVEL=DEBUG See

Documentation Changes

  • A complete overhaul of the docs:

    • Use pip instead of easy_install.
    • Become opinionated by preferring Python 3.4 or greater to simplify installation of Python and its required packaging tools.
    • Use venv for the tool, and virtual environment for the thing created, instead of virtualenv.
    • Use py.test and pytest-cov instead of nose and coverage.
    • Further updates to the scaffolds as well as tutorials and their src files.


  • A complete overhaul of the alchemy scaffold as well as the Wiki2 SQLAlchemy + URLDispatch tutorial to introduce more modern features into the usage of SQLAlchemy with Pyramid and provide a better starting point for new projects. See

Bug Fixes

  • Fix pserve --browser to use the --server-name instead of the app name when selecting a section to use. This was only working for people who had server and app sections with the same name, for example [app:main] and [server:main]. See


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