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Lightweight Python client for Apache Solr

Project description

pysolr is a lightweight Python client for Apache Solr. It provides an interface that queries the server and returns results based on the query.




  • Basic operations such as selecting, updating & deleting.
  • Index optimization.
  • “More Like This” support (if set up in Solr).
  • Spelling correction (if set up in Solr).
  • Timeout support.
  • SolrCloud awareness


  • Python 2.7 - 3.7
  • Requests 2.9.1+
  • Optional - simplejson
  • Optional - kazoo for SolrCloud mode


pysolr is on PyPI:

$ pip install pysolr

Or if you want to install directly from the repository:

$ python install


Basic usage looks like:

# If on Python 2.X
from __future__ import print_function

import pysolr

# Create a client instance. The timeout and authentication options are not required.
solr = pysolr.Solr('http://localhost:8983/solr/', always_commit=True, [timeout=10], [auth=<type of authentication>])

# Note that auto_commit defaults to False for performance. You can set
# `auto_commit=True` to have commands always update the index immediately, make
# an update call with `commit=True`, or use Solr's `autoCommit` / `commitWithin`
# to have your data be committed following a particular policy.

# Do a health check.

# How you'd index data.
        "id": "doc_1",
        "title": "A test document",
        "id": "doc_2",
        "title": "The Banana: Tasty or Dangerous?",
        "_doc": [
            { "id": "child_doc_1", "title": "peel" },
            { "id": "child_doc_2", "title": "seed" },

# You can index a parent/child document relationship by
# associating a list of child documents with the special key '_doc'. This
# is helpful for queries that join together conditions on children and parent
# documents.

# Later, searching is easy. In the simple case, just a plain Lucene-style
# query is fine.
results ='bananas')

# The ``Results`` object stores total results found, by default the top
# ten most relevant results and any additional data like
# facets/highlighting/spelling/etc.
print("Saw {0} result(s).".format(len(results)))

# Just loop over it to access the results.
for result in results:
    print("The title is '{0}'.".format(result['title']))

# For a more advanced query, say involving highlighting, you can pass
# additional options to Solr.
results ='bananas', **{
    'hl': 'true',
    'hl.fragsize': 10,

# You can also perform More Like This searches, if your Solr is configured
# correctly.
similar = solr.more_like_this(q='id:doc_2', mltfl='text')

# Finally, you can delete either individual documents,

# also in batches...
solr.delete(id=['doc_1', 'doc_2'])

# ...or all documents.
# For SolrCloud mode, initialize your Solr like this:

zookeeper = pysolr.ZooKeeper("zkhost1:2181,zkhost2:2181,zkhost3:2181")
solr = pysolr.SolrCloud(zookeeper, "collection1", auth=<type of authentication>)

Multicore Index

Simply point the URL to the index core:

# Setup a Solr instance. The timeout is optional.
solr = pysolr.Solr('http://localhost:8983/solr/core_0/', timeout=10)

Custom Request Handlers

# Setup a Solr instance. The trailing slash is optional.
solr = pysolr.Solr('http://localhost:8983/solr/core_0/', search_handler='/autocomplete', use_qt_param=False)

If use_qt_param is True it is essential that the name of the handler is exactly what is configured in solrconfig.xml, including the leading slash if any. If use_qt_param is False (default), the leading and trailing slashes can be omitted.

If search_handler is not specified, pysolr will default to /select.

The handlers for MoreLikeThis, Update, Terms etc. all default to the values set in the solrconfig.xml SOLR ships with: mlt, update, terms etc. The specific methods of pysolr’s Solr class (like more_like_this, suggest_terms etc.) allow for a kwarg handler to override that value. This includes the search method. Setting a handler in search explicitly overrides the search_handler setting (if any).

Custom Authentication

# Setup a Solr instance in a kerborized enviornment
from requests_kerberos import HTTPKerberosAuth, OPTIONAL
kerberos_auth = HTTPKerberosAuth(mutual_authentication=OPTIONAL, sanitize_mutual_error_response=False)

solr = pysolr.Solr('http://localhost:8983/solr/', auth=kerberos_auth)
# Setup a CloudSolr instance in a kerborized environment
from requests_kerberos import HTTPKerberosAuth, OPTIONAL
kerberos_auth = HTTPKerberosAuth(mutual_authentication=OPTIONAL, sanitize_mutual_error_response=False)

zookeeper = pysolr.ZooKeeper("zkhost1:2181/solr, zkhost2:2181,...,zkhostN:2181")
solr = pysolr.SolrCloud(zookeeper, "collection", auth=kerberos_auth)

If your Solr servers run off https

# Setup a Solr instance in an https environment
solr = pysolr.Solr('http://localhost:8983/solr/', verify=path/to/cert.pem)
# Setup a CloudSolr instance in a kerborized environment

zookeeper = pysolr.ZooKeeper("zkhost1:2181/solr, zkhost2:2181,...,zkhostN:2181")
solr = pysolr.SolrCloud(zookeeper, "collection", verify=path/to/cert.perm)

Custom Commit Policy

# Setup a Solr instance. The trailing slash is optional.
# All requests to Solr will be immediately committed because `always_commit=True`:
solr = pysolr.Solr('http://localhost:8983/solr/core_0/', search_handler='/autocomplete', always_commit=True)

always_commit signals to the Solr object to either commit or not commit by default for any solr request. Be sure to change this to True if you are upgrading from a version where the default policy was always commit by default.

Functions like add and delete also still provide a way to override the default by passing the commit kwarg.

It is generally good practice to limit the amount of commits to Solr as excessive commits risk opening too many searchers or excessive system resource consumption. See the Solr documentation for more information and details about the autoCommit and commitWithin options:


pysolr is licensed under the New BSD license.

Contributing to pysolr

For consistency, this project uses pre-commit to manage Git commit hooks:

  1. Install the pre-commit package: e.g. brew install pre-commit, pip install pre-commit, etc.
  2. Run pre-commit install each time you check out a new copy of this Git repository to ensure that every subsequent commit will be processed by running pre-commit run, which you may also do as desired. To test the entire repository or in a CI scenario, you can check every file rather than just the staged ones using pre-commit run –all.

Running Tests

The script will automatically perform the steps below and is recommended for testing by default unless you need more control.

Running a test Solr instance

Downloading, configuring and running Solr 4 looks like this:


Running the tests

$ python -m unittest tests

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