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The simplest web framework you will ever use

Project description

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PyTerrier

This project has started out of my curiosity to understand how web frameworks work under the hood, to study closely the http module and also the feel that the Python community need to have frameworks written in Python 3, so we can take advantage of all its neat features. PyTerrier is highly inspired by frameworks like Flask, Django and Microsoft's Web API.

Highlight features

  • Written in Python 3.7
  • Favorite conventions over configuration
  • Value simple code
  • Flexible
  • Provide a clean project structure

Quick start

The quickest way to get started is to install PyTerrier on a virtual environment and use the PyTerrier CLI to create a new project:

  1. Create a new directory for your application
mkdir myapp && cd myapp
  1. Create a virtual environment (make sure that you have Python 3.6 or greater)
pipenv --three
  1. Activate the virtual environment
pipenv shell
  1. Install Pyterrier
pipenv install pyterrier

Creating your first application

Now that the PyTerrier is installed you can use the CLI to create our first application, execute the command below:

pyterrier --newapp myapp --currentdir

The --newapp option especify the name of you application, the option --currentdir is used when you want the CLI to create the application files in our current directory, without this option the CLI will create a directory with the same name of your application and create the files in there.

That's it, you done!

By default, the application will run on the port 8000. Just open up your browser and go to http://localhost:8000

To get a full description of the options available in the Pyterrier CLI you can use the --help option like so pyterrier --help and you should see the output below:

Usage: pyterrier [OPTIONS]

Options:
  --currentdir          Create the app on the current directory.
  --newapp NAME         Name of the new app.
  --newcontroller NAME  Name of the new controller.
  --help                Show this message and exit.

Show me some code!!

PyTerrier favorite conventions over configurations, so the project need to follow a certain structure to work, for instance, a minimum bare bone PyTerrier application would have the following structure:

app
├── app.py
├── controllers
├── static
└── templates
Item Description
app It's the root of the application, obviously it can be any name you like
app.py This is the application's entry point, there you can initialize the application and register routes
controllers The controllersdirectory will be the place files containing your actions
static The staticdirectory is where you can place all the static assets of your application. CSS, JavaScript, Images, Fonts...
templates This is the folder where Pyterrier will lookup for templates to render

A very simple PyTerrier application would look a bit like this:

from pyterrier import PyTerrier
from pyterrier.http import ViewResult

app = PyTerrier(port=3000)

@app.get('/sayhello')
def sayhello(self):
    return ViewResult('index.html', { 'message': 'Hellooooo!' })

app.run()

This code will start a server running on the port 3000 and it will define a function that will be executed when a GET request to /sayhello is made.

The sayhello function will return a ViewResult which will get a template, the context and render it using the template engine of your choice. By default, PyTerrier uses Jinja2.

Let's have a look how the template looks like.

To avoid repeating HTML code we have a base file.

<html>
    <head>
    </head>
    <body>
        <h1>My first PyTerrier application</h1>
        {% block content %}
        {% endblock %}
    </body>
</html>

Then we have content html called index.html

{% extends "base.html" %}

{% block content %}
    {{message}}
{% endblock %}

One thing to notice here is that every function in PyTerrier have a first argument self. Self is a reference to the function itself and expose a property called request which is (as the name says) information about the request that has been performed. The Request object exposes the request path, the parameters and header values.

Now let's say we want to pass a parameter in the URL, you achieve that using a parameter placeholder:

from pyterrier import PyTerrier
from pyterrier.http import ViewResult


app = PyTerrier(port=3000)

@app.get("/sayhello/to/{name:str}")
def sayhello(self, name):
    return ViewResult("index.html", { "message": f"Hellooooo, {name}!" })

app.run()

When a GET request is made to /sayhello/to/daniel, the HTML content containg the message Hellooooo, daniel! will be returned.

At the moment only str and int parameter placeholders are supported.

To return a HTTP/200 response with the results, you can use the Ok function.

from pyterrier import PyTerrier
from pyterrier.http import Ok, NotFound


app = PyTerrier(port=3000)

@app.get('/api/user/{id:int}')
def get(self, id):
    user = user_repository.get(id)

    if user == None:
        return NotFound()

    return Ok(user)

app.run()

Now, there are situations that it's not viable to keep all the api endpoints in a single file. By convention PyTerrier looks for actions registered in files inside the controllers folder in the application's root. With that said, we can create a new folder called controllers and inside of that folder we can create a file called userController.py with the following contents:

from pyterrier import PyTerrier
from pyterrier.http import Ok, NotFound, get


app = PyTerrier(port=3000)

@get("/get/{id:int}")
def get(self, id):
    user = user_repository.get(id)

    if user == None:
        return NotFound()

    return Ok(user)

app.run()

We also need to perform some changes in the application's main file, like so:

from pyterrier import PyTerrier


app = PyTerrier(port=3000)

app.init_routes(prefix_routes=True)
app.run()

The code is very similar with what we had before but now we are calling the method init_routes. This method will lookup all the files in the controllers directory and register all the actions that it finds. Additionally, the argument prefix_routes is set to True meaning that it will prefix the route with the controller prefix. For instance, the route that we just registered in the userController file is /get/{id:int} with the prefix_routes set to True it will become /user/get/{id:int}.

Posting data to the server

Performing a POST request is as simple as GET. It is only needed to import the @post decorator and get the request data out of self.request.params:

from pyterrier.http import Ok, post


@post("/add")
def add(self):

    id, name, email = self.request.params

    """ Update the user """

    return Ok()

PUT request

from pyterrier.http import Ok, put


@put("/update")
def update(self):

    id, name, email = self.request.params

    """ Update the user """

    return Ok()

Delete request

from pyterrier.http import Ok, delete


@delete("/user/{id:int}/delete")
def delete(self, id):
    deleted = user_repository.delete(id)
    return Ok()

Contributing to the project

See CONTRIBUTING.md for more details.

Copyright and License

Copyright (c) 2017 Daniel Furtado. Code released under BSD 3-clause license

Credits

This package was created with Cookiecutter and the audreyr/cookiecutter-pypackage project template.

History

0.1.4 (2018-10-29)

  • Documentation fixes.

0.1.3 (2018-10-26)

  • Documentation fixes.

0.1.2 (2018-10-26)

  • Documentation fixes.

0.1.0 (2018-10-26)

  • First release on PyPI.

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