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Python Inversion-of-Control framework


The ioc module provides a framework to dynamically inject dependencies in Python applications. This intends to reduce coupling between application and infrastructure, and application and third-party libraries.



In it's most basic usage, dependencies can be declared and invoked using a few simple calls to functions in the ioc library.

>>> import ioc
>>> req = ioc.require('MY_REQUIREMENT')
>>> ioc.provide('MY_REQUIREMENT', 'foo')
>>> print(req)

The procedure is simple: state your requirement by a symbolic name and call to ioc.require(), and then provide the requirement using ioc.provide().

When an application fails to provide a dependency for a requirement, an exception is raised upon invocation:

>>> import ioc
>>> req = ioc.require('MY_REQUIREMENT')
>>> print(req)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "", line 11, in inner
  File "ioc/", line 58, in _setup
    self._injected = self._provider.resolve(self._names[0])
  File "ioc/", line 33, in resolve
    raise UnsatisfiedDependency(name)
ioc.exc.UnsatisfiedDependency: MY_REQUIREMENT

Class properties

A call to ioc.require() will not return the actual dependency (it might not be resolved yet) but a wrapper that mimics the behavior of the (to-be) injected dependency.

>>> import ioc
>>> repr(ioc.require('not_resolved'))
'<ioc.requirement.DeclaredRequirement object at 0x101db7ac8>'

This might not always be a desirable property, for example with Python C-extensions that enforce datatypes on their input parameters. To solve this problem, the ioc module provides the ioc.class_property() decorator. This adds a descriptor to a class that will always return the dependency as it was injected.

>>> import ioc
>>> class Foo:
...     bar = ioc.class_property('bar')
>>> ioc.provide('bar', 'baz')
>>> repr(
'<property object at 0x101ce5ae8>'
>>> foo = Foo()
>>> repr(

Advanced usage



  • Append symbol dependencies to an existing iterable.
  • Load literal dependencies from environment variables.
  • Fix parser loading literal dependencies as symbols.
  • Allow default arguments in signatures with ArgumentDependencyInjector.
  • marshmallow 3.0.0b11 compatibility.


  • Add support for copy.copy() and copy.deepcopy().
  • Allow default argument with ioc.class_property().
  • Make ioc.class_property() a real class property.
  • Allow overriding dependencies at runtime.

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python-ioc-1.13.0.tar.gz (26.7 kB view hashes)

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