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A Python wrapper around the Twitter API

Project description

Python Twitter

A Python wrapper around the Twitter API.

By the `Python-Twitter Developers <>`_

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This library provides a pure Python interface for the `Twitter API <>`_. It works with Python versions from 2.7+ and Python 3.

`Twitter <>`_ provides a service that allows people to connect via the web, IM, and SMS. Twitter exposes a `web services API <>`_ and this library is intended to make it even easier for Python programmers to use.


You can install python-twitter using::

$ pip install python-twitter

If you are using python-twitter on Google App Engine, see `more information <GAE.rst>`_ about including 3rd party vendor library dependencies in your App Engine project.

Getting the code

The code is hosted at

Check out the latest development version anonymously with::

$ git clone git://
$ cd python-twitter

To install dependencies, run either::

$ make dev


$ pip install -Ur requirements.testing.txt
$ pip install -Ur requirements.txt

Note that ```make dev``` will install into your local ```pyenv``` all of the versions needed for test runs using ```tox```.

To install the minimal dependencies for production use (i.e., what is installed
with ``pip install python-twitter``) run::

$ make env


$ pip install -Ur requirements.txt

Running Tests
The test suite can be run against a single Python version or against a range of them depending on which Makefile target you select.

Note that tests require ```pip install pytest``` and optionally ```pip install pytest-cov``` (these are included if you have installed dependencies from ```requirements.testing.txt```)

To run the unit tests with a single Python version::

$ make test

to also run code coverage::

$ make coverage

To run the unit tests against a set of Python versions::

$ make tox


View the latest python-twitter documentation at You can view Twitter's API documentation at:


The library provides a Python wrapper around the Twitter API and the Twitter data model. To get started, check out the examples in the examples/ folder or read the documentation at which contains information about getting your authentication keys from Twitter and using the library.

Using with Django

Additional template tags that expand tweet urls and urlize tweet text. See the django template tags available for use with python-twitter:


The library utilizes models to represent various data structures returned by Twitter. Those models are:
* twitter.Category
* twitter.DirectMessage
* twitter.Hashtag
* twitter.List
* twitter.Media
* twitter.Status
* twitter.Trend
* twitter.Url
* twitter.User
* twitter.UserStatus

To read the documentation for any of these models, run::

$ pydoc twitter.[model]


The API is exposed via the ``twitter.Api`` class.

The python-twitter requires the use of OAuth keys for nearly all operations. As of Twitter's API v1.1, authentication is required for most, if not all, endpoints. Therefore, you will need to register an app with Twitter in order to use this library. Please see the "Getting Started" guide on for a more information.

To generate an Access Token you have to pick what type of access your application requires and then do one of the following:

- `Generate a token to access your own account <>`_
- `Generate a pin-based token <>`_
- use the helper script ` <>`_

For full details see the `Twitter OAuth Overview <>`_

To create an instance of the ``twitter.Api`` with login credentials (Twitter now requires an OAuth Access Token for all API calls)::

>>> import twitter
>>> api = twitter.Api(consumer_key='consumer_key',

To see if your credentials are successful::

>>> print(api.VerifyCredentials())
{"id": 16133, "location": "Philadelphia", "name": "bear"}

**NOTE**: much more than the small sample given here will print

To fetch a single user's public status messages, where ``user`` is a Twitter user's screen name::

>>> statuses = api.GetUserTimeline(screen_name=user)
>>> print([s.text for s in statuses])

To fetch a list a user's friends::

>>> users = api.GetFriends()
>>> print([ for u in users])

To post a Twitter status message::

>>> status = api.PostUpdate('I love python-twitter!')
>>> print(status.text)
I love python-twitter!

There are many more API methods, to read the full API documentation either
check out the documentation on `readthedocs
<>`_, build the documentation locally

$ make docs

or check out the inline documentation with::

$ pydoc twitter.Api


Patches, pull requests, and bug reports are `welcome <>`_, just please keep the style consistent with the original source.

In particular, having more example scripts would be a huge help. If you have
a program that uses python-twitter and would like a link in the documentation,
submit a pull request against ``twitter/doc/getting_started.rst`` and add your
program at the bottom.

The twitter.Status and ``twitter.User`` classes are going to be hard to keep in sync with the API if the API changes. More of the code could probably be written with introspection.

The ``twitter.Status`` and ``twitter.User`` classes could perform more validation on the property setters.

More Information

Please visit `the google group <>`_ for more discussion.


Originally two libraries by DeWitt Clinton and Mike Taylor which was then merged into python-twitter.

Now it's a full-on open source project with many contributors over time. See AUTHORS.rst for the complete list.


| Copyright 2007-2016 The Python-Twitter Developers
| Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the 'License');
| you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
| You may obtain a copy of the License at
| Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
| distributed under the License is distributed on an 'AS IS' BASIS,
| See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
| limitations under the License.

Originally two libraries by DeWitt Clinton and Mike Taylor which was then merged into python-twitter.

Now it's a full-on open source project with many contributors over time:

* Jodok Batlogg,
* Kyle Bock,
* Brad Choate,
* Robert Clarke,
* Jim Cortez,
* Pierre-Jean Coudert,
* Aish Raj Dahal,
* Thomas Dyson,
* Jim Easterbrook
* Yoshinori Fukushima,
* Hameedullah Khan,
* Osama Khalid,
* Omar Kilani,
* Domen Kožar,
* Robert Laquey,
* Jason Lemoine,
* Pradeep Nayak,
* Ian Ozsvald,
* Nicolas Perriault,
* Trevor Prater,
* Glen Tregoning,
* Lars Weiler,
* Sebastian Wiesinger,
* Jake Robinson,
* Muthu Annamalai,
* abloch,
* cahlan,
* dpslwk,
* edleaf,
* ecesena,
* git-matrix,
* sbywater,
* thefinn93,
* themylogin,

Going forward all changes will be tracked in docs/changelog.rst

Large number of changes related to making the code Python v3 compatible.
See the messy details at

Pull Requests
#525 Adds support for 280 character limit for tweets by trevorprater
#267 initialize Api.__auth fixes #119 by rbpasker
#266 Add full_text and page options in GetDirectMessages function by mistersalmon
#264 Updates Media object with new methods, adds id param, adds tests by jeremylow
#262 Update by lababidi
#261 Adding Collections by ryankicks
#260 Added UpdateBackgroundImage method and added profile_link_color argument to UpdateProfile by BrandonBielicki
#259 Added GetFriendIDsPaged by RockHoward
#254 Adding api methods for suggestions and suggestions/:slug by trentstollery
#253 Added who parameter to api.GetSearch by wilsonand1
#250 adds UpdateFriendship (shared Add/Edit friendship) by jheld
#249 Fixed Non-ASCII printable representation in Trend by der-Daniel
#246 Add __repr__ for status by era
#245 Python-3 Fix: decode bytestreams for json load by ligthyear
#243 Remove references to outdated API functionality: GetUserByEmail by Vector919
#239 Correct GetListsList docstring by tedmiston

Probably a whole lot that I missed - ugh!

Added support for 280 character limit

Added who to api.GetSearch

removed reference to simplejson

bump version to v2.3
bump version to v2.2
PEP8 standardization

bump version to v2.1

update copyright years
change to allow installing via wheel
renamed to README.rst
added AUTHORS.rst

changed version to 1.3 and then to 1.3.1 because I forgot to include CHANGES
fix Issue 143 - GetStatusOembed() url parameter was being stomped on
fix debugHTTP in a brute force way but it works again
Add id_str to Status class
Added LookupFriendship() method for checking follow status
pull request from lucas
Fix bug of GetListMembers when specifying `owner_screen_name`
pull request from shichao-an

backfilling varioius lists endpoints
added a basic user stream call

changed to version 1.2
fixed python 3 issue in (print statements)
fixed error in CreateList(), changed count default for GetFollowers to 200 and added a GetFollowersPaged() method

need to backfill commit log entries!

changed version to 1.1
The following changes have been made since the 1.0.1 release

Remove from ParseTweet the Python 2.7 only dict comprehension item
Fix GetListTimeline condition to enable owner_screen_name based fetching
Many fixes for readability and PEP8
Cleaning up some of the package importing. Only importing the functions that are needed
Also added first build of the sphinx documentation. Copied some info from the readme to the index page
Added lines to to help the user troubleshoot install problems. #109
Removed the OAuth2 lines from the readme
Removed OAuth2 library requirements
Added GetListMembers()

changed version to 1.0.1
added README bit about Python version requirement

changed version to 1.0
removed doc directory until we can update docs for v1.1 API
added to package the testdata directory

bumped version to 1.0rc1
merged in api_v1.1 branch

The library is now only for Twitter API v1.1

bumped version to 0.8.7

removed GetPublicTimeline from the docs so as to stop confusing
new folks since it was the first example given ... d'oh!

bumped version to 0.8.6

update requirements.txt to remove distribute reference
github commit 3b9214a879e5fbd03036a7d4ae86babc03784846

Merge pull request #33 from iElectric/profile_image_url_https
github commit 67cbb8390701c945a48094795474ca485f092049
patch by iElectric on github

Change User.NewFromJsonDict so that it will pull from either
profile_image_url_https or profile_image_url to keep older code
working properly if they have stored older json data

bumped version to 0.8.5
lots of changes have been happening on Github and i've been
very remiss in documenting them here in the Changes file :(

this version is the last v1.0 API release and it's being made
to push to PyPI and other places

all work now will be on getting the v1.1 API supported

Api.UserLookUp() throws attribute error when corresponding screen_name is not found
Merge pull request #5 from thefinn93/master crashes because the README file is now named

Update .gitignore to add the PyCharm data directory

Patch by
Add exclude_replies parameter to GetUserTimeline
Bug reported by michaelmior on github attempts Web auth

Comment by qfuxiang to the above changeset
The base url was wrong for the Followers API calls
Add include_entities parameter to GetStatus()
Patch by gaelenh
Change PostUpdate() so that it takes the shortened link into
account. Small tweak to the patch provided to make the
shortened-link length set by a API value instead of a constant.
Patch by ceesjan.ytec
AttributeError handles the fact that win* doesn't implement
Patch by yaleman
As described at,
GET trends (corresponding to Api.GetTrendsCurrent) is now
deprecated in favor of GET trends/:woeid. GET trends also now
requires authentication, while trends/:woeid doesn't.
Patch and excellent description by jessica.mckellar
Currently, two Trends containing the same information
(name, query, and timestamp) aren't considered equal because
__eq__ isn't overridden, like it is for Status, User, and the
other Twitter objects.
Patch and excellent description by jessica.mckellar
All variations on a theme - basically Twitter is returning
something different for an error payload. Changed code to
check for both 'error' and 'errors'.

A comment in this issue made me realize that the parameter sanity
check for max_id was missing in GetMentions() - added

First pass at working in some of the cursor support that has been
in the Twitter API but we haven't made full use of - still working
out the small issues.


bumped version to 0.8.3
released 0.8.2 to PyPI
bumped version to 0.8.2

Issue 193
Missing retweet_count field on Status object
Patch (with minor tweaks) by from alissonp

Issue 181
Add oauth2 to install_requires parameter list and also updated
README to note that the oauth2 lib can be found in two locations

Issue 182, Issue 137, Issue 93, Issue 190
language value missing from User object
Added 'lang' item and also some others that were needed:
verified, notifications, contributors_enabled and listed_count
patches by wreinerat, apetresc, jpwigan and ghills


Issue 166
Added a basic, but sadly needed, check when parsing the json
returned by Twitter as Twitter has a habit of returning the
failwhale HTML page for a json api call :(
Patch (with minor tweaks) by adam.aviv

Issue 187
Applied patch by edward.hades to fix issue where MaximumHitFrequency
returns 0 when requests are maxed out

Issue 184
Applied patch by jmstaley to put into the GetUserTimeline API
parameter list the max_id value (it was being completely ignored)


Added retweeted to Status class
Fixed Status class to return Hashtags list in AsDict() call

Issue 185
Added retweeted_status to Status class - patch by edward.hades

Issue 183
Removed errant print statement - reported by ProgVal


Setting version to 0.8.1

Issue 179
Added to give sdist some clues as to what
files to include in the tarball


Setting version to 0.8 for a bit as having a branch for this is
really overkill, i'll just take DeWitt advice and tag it when
the release is out the door

Issue 175
Added geo_enabled to User class - basic parts of patch provided
by adam.aviv with other bits added by me to allow it to pass tests

Issue 174
Added parts of adam.aviv's patch - the bits that add new field items
to the Status class.

Issue 159
Added patch form adam.aviv to make the term parameter for GetSearch()
optional if geocode parameter is supplied


Ran pydoc to generate docs


Fixed bad date in previous CHANGES entry

Fixed source of the python-oauth2 library we use: from brosner
to simplegeo

I made a pass thru the docstrings and updated many to be the
text from the current Twitter API docs. Also fixed numerous
whitespace issues and did a s/[optional]/[Optional]/ change.

Imported work by Colin Howe that he did to get the tests working.

Issue 169
Patch by yaemog which adds missing Trends support.

Issue 168
Only cache successful results as suggested by yaemog.

Issue 111
Added a new GetUserRetweets() call as suggested by yash888
Patch given was adjusted to reflect the current code requirements.

Issue 110
Added a VerifyCredentials() sample call to the README example

Issue 105
Added support for the page parameter to GetFriendsTimeline()
as requested by jauderho.
I also updated GetFriendsTimeline() to follow the current
Twitter API documentation

Somewhere in the patch frenzy of today an extra GetStatus()
def was introduced!?! Luckily it was caught by the tests.
wooo tests! \m/

Setting version to 0.8

r0.8 branch created and trunk set to version 0.9-devel


Issue 150
Patch by blhobbes which removes a double quoting issue that
was happening for GetSearch()
Reported by huubhuubbarbatruuk

Issue 160
Patch by yaemog which adds support for include_rts and
include_entities support to GetUserTimeline and GetPublicTimeline
Small tweaks post-patch

Applied docstring tweak suggested by dclinton in revision comment
Thanks for the catch!

Issue 164
Patch by yaemog which adds GetRetweets support.
Small tweaks and two typo fixes post-patch.

Issue 165
Patch by yaemog which adds GetStatus support.
Small tweaks post-patch

Issue 163
Patch by yaemog which adds users/lookup support.
Small tweaks to docstring only post-patch.

Changed username/password parameter to Api class to be
consumer_key/consumer_secret to better match the new
oAuth only world that Twitter has demanded.

Added debugHTTP to the parameter list to Api class to
control if/when the urllib debug output is displayed.


First pass at adding list support.
Added a new List class and also added to the Api class
new methods for working with lists:

CreateList(self, user, name, mode=None, description=None)
DestroyList(self, user, id)
CreateSubscription(self, owner, list)
DestroySubscription(self, owner, list)
GetSubscriptions(self, user, cursor=-1)
GetLists(self, user, cursor=-1)


Fixed introduced bug in the Destroy* and Create* API calls
where any of the routines were passing in an empty dict for
POST data. Before the oAuth change that was enough to tell
_FetchUrl() to use POST instead of GET but now a non-empty
dict is required.

Issue 144
GetFriends() where it was failing with a 'unicode object has
no attribute get'. This was caused when Twitter changed how
they return the JSON data. It used to be a straight list but
now there are some elements *and* then the list.


Applied the json/simplejson part of the patch found
in Issue 64 (
Patch provided by Thomas Bohmbach

Applied patch provided by liris.pp in Issue 147
Ensures that during a PostStatus we count the length using a unicode aware
len() routine. Tweaked patch slightly to take into account that the
twitter.Api() instance may have been setup with None for input_encoding.


Fixed error in the POST path for _FetchUrl() where by
I show to the world that yes, I do make last minute
changes and completely forget to test them :(
Thanks to Peter Sanchez for finding and pointing to
working code that showed the fix


Added more help text (I hope it helps) to the README
and also to

Added doctext notes to twitter.Api() parameter list
to explain more about oAuth.

Added import exception handling for parse_qs() and
parse_qsl() as it seems those funcitons moved between
2.5 and 2.6 so the oAuth update broke the lib under
python2.5. Thanks to Rich for the bug find (sorry
it had to be found the hard way!)

from changeset 184:60315000989c by DeWitt
Update the generated docs to match the trunk


Fixed silly typo in _FetchUrl() when doing a POST
Thanks to Peter Sanchez for the find and fix!

Added some really basic text to the
startup output that explains why, for now, you need to
visit Twitter and get an Application key/secret to use
this library


Updated code to use python-oauth2 library for authentication.
Twitter has set a deadline, 2010-08-16 as of this change, for
the switch from Basic to oAuth.

The oAuth integration was inspired by the work done by
Hameedullah Khan and others.

The change to using python-oauth2 library was done purely to
align python-twitter with an oauth library that was maintained
and had tests to try and minimize grief moving forward.

Slipped into GetFriendsTimeline() a new parameter, retweets, to
allow the call to pull from the "friends_timeline" or the

Fixed some typos and white-space issues and also updated the
README to point to the new Twitter Dev site.


Updated copyright information.


Applied changeset from nicdumz repo nicdumz-cleaner-python-twitter
datetime is required for MaximumHitFrequency

Applied changeset from nicdumz repo nicdumz-cleaner-python-twitter
update source URLs in README

Applied changeset from nicdumz repo nicdumz-cleaner-python-twitter
adjust tests to reflect -> change

Applied changeset from nicdumz repo nicdumz-cleaner-python-twitter
tests: add .info() method to objects returned by our Mockup handler
This is required to completely mimick urllib, and have successful
response.headers attribute accesses.

Applied partial patch for Issue 113

The partial bit means we changed the parameter from "page" to "cursor"
so the call would work. What was left out was a more direct way
to return the cursor value *after* the call and also in the patch
they also changed the method to return an iterator.


Issue 50
Applied patch by that implements a new method to return
the Rate Limit Status and also adds the new method MaximumHitFrequency

Multiple typo, indent and whitespace tweaks

Issue 60
Pulled out new GetFavorites and GetMentions methods from the patch
submitted by joegermuska

Issue 62
Applied patch from lukev123 that adds gzip compression to the GET
requests sent to Twitter. The patch was modified to default gzip to
False and to allow the twitter.API class instantiation to set the
value to True. This was done to not change current default
behaviour radically.

Issue 80
Fixed PostUpdate() call example in the README


Issue 19
TinyURL example and the idea for this comes from a bug filed by
acolorado with patch provided by ghills.

Issue 37
Added base_url to the twitter.API class init call to allow the user
to override the default base. Since Twitter now
supports https for all calls I (bear) changed the patch to default to
https instead of http.
Original issue by kotecha.ravi, patch by wiennat and with implementation
tweaks by bear.

Issue 45
Two grammar fixes for relative_created_at property
Patches by thomasdyson and chris.boardman07


Applying patch submitted to fix Issue 70

The patch was originally submitted by user ghills, adapted by livibetter and
adapted even further by JimMoefoe (read the comments for the full details :) )

Applying patch submitted by markus.magnuson to add new method GetFriendIDs
Issue 94


Releasing 0.6 to help people avoid the Twitpocalypse.


Support hashlib in addition to the older md5 library.


Added page parameter to GetReplies, GetFriends, GetFollowers, and GetDirectMessages


Added count parameter to GetFriendsTimeline

Add PostUpdates, which automatically splits long text into multiple updates.


Add in_reply_to_status_id to api.PostUpdate


Wrap any error responses in a TwitterError
Add since_id to GetFriendsTimeline and GetUserTimeline


Added since and since_id to Api.GetReplies


Added new properties to User and Status classes.
Removed spurious self-import of the twitter module
Added a NOTICE file
Require simplejson 2.x or later
Added get/create/destroy favorite flags for status messages.
Bug fix for non-tty devices.


Unset the executable bit on README.


Released version 0.5.
Added back support for setuptools (conditionally)
Added support for X-Twitter-* HTTP headers
Fixed the tests to work across all timezones
Removed the 140 character limit from PostUpdate
Added support for per-user tmp cache directories


Released 0.4.
Fixed a unicode error that prevented from working.
Added DestroyStatus
Added DestroyDirectMessage
Added CreateFriendship
Added DestoryFriendship


Fixed the bug that prevented unicode strings being posted
Username and password now set on twitter.Api, not individual method calls
Added SetCredentials and ClearCredentials
Added GetUser ("users/show" in the twitter web api)
Added GetFeatured
Added GetDirectMessages
Added GetStatus ("statuses/show" in the twitter web api)
Added GetReplies
Added optional since_id parameter on GetPublicTimeline
Added optional since parameter on GetUserTimeline
Added optional since and user parameters on GetFriendsTimeline
Added optional user parameter on GetFriends


Modified examples/ to handle unicode
Dropped dependency on setuptools (too complicated/buggy)
Added unicode test cases
Fixed issue 2 "Rename needs an unlink in front"


Released 0.3.
Use gmtime not localtime to calculate relative_created_at.


Released 0.2
GetUserTimeline can accept userid or username.


Calculate relative_created_at on the fly


Released 0.1
Initial checkin of python-twitter

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