PasteScript template for initializing a new buildout/pytest/travis/setuptools-enabled Python project
This is a PasteScript template for generating a Python project. It provides simple starting points for using some of the popular best-practices:
The easiest way to install the package is via easy_install or pip:
$ easy_install python_boilerplate_template
Note that the package is a plugin to the paster tool. The paster tool is provided by the PasteScript package (it will be installed automatically with python_boilerplate_template). The paster executable should appear in your Python’s bin/ (in Windows Scripts/) directory. You might need to add that directory to your PATH to run the executable.
To initialize a directory layout for a new project, ensure that paster is in your path and run:
$ paster create -t python_boilerplate <project_name>
After asking some basic questions, the tool will create the following project layout for you:
<project_name>/ | +-- .gitignore # Git configuration +-- .travis.yml # Travis-CI configuration +-- bootstrap.py # Buildout bootstrap-script +-- buildout.cfg # Buildout project configuration +-- setup.cfg # Configuration for py.test and other tools +-- README.md # Information on how to use the project +-- src/ # Directory for keeping (possible multiple) project eggs | +- <egg_name>/ # First egg of the project | +-- package/ # Python source files +-- tests/ # Tests +-- .gitignore # Git configuration +-- .travis.yml # Travis-CI configuration +-- setup.cfg # Configuration for py.test and other tools +-- setup.py # Package metadata +-- MANIFEST.in # Files to include in the package +-- README.rst # Package description +-- LICENSE.txt # License +-- CHANGELOG.txt # Changelog
This structure suggests you develop your project as a collection of eggs, with each egg having its separate subdirectory within src/. Each egg uses the standard setuptools layout, and the whole project relies on buildout to organize the parts.
The next thing to do after having created the project layout is to add the code to a version control repository. There are two common options for you to choose from:
- For smaller single-package projects you might want to keep only the Python’s package code (i.e. src/<egg_name>) under version control, and consider the rest (the buildout.cfg and all that comes with it) to be your local development environment.
- For larger projects you should consider keeping the whole development environment (including buildout.cfg, perhaps several eggs under src, docs in doc, etc) under version control.
If you decided in favor of Option 1:
Create a version control repository under src/<egg_name>. Here is an example with Git:> cd src/<egg_name> > git init > git add . > git commit -m "Initial package structure"
If you are using Github, proceed by creating a <your-project> repository on the Github website, and then doing:> git remote add origin https://github.com/<username>/<your-project>.git > git push origin master
You can safely delete the .travis.yml file in the root of the project (but leave the one within the src/<egg_name> directory).
If you decided in favor of Option 2:
- Create a version control repository under the project root. The Git/Github example above applies, except for the first cd line.
- Drop .travis.yml from the src/<egg_name> directory (leave the one in the project root).
Before you begin developing your code, you may wish to tune the src/<egg_name>/README.rst file. This file should contain a detailed description of what your package is supposed to do. In particular, when you submit your package to PyPI, the contents of this file will be shown on the package index page.
In addition, the LICENSE.txt included with the boilerplate code is a copy of the MIT license. If you project uses a different license, replace this file to match.
Eventually, you will also want to edit the README.md to reflect the development instructions that apply to your project.
Finally, review the settings in src/<egg_name>/setup.py (e.g., the classifiers parameter might require tuning).
Once you are done with the preparation, you can start developing by running python bootstrap.py and then buildout. See next section.
Common development tasks
Setting up the development environment before first use:> python bootstrap.py > export PATH=$PWD/bin:$PATH (in Windows: set PATH=%CD%\bin;%PATH%) > buildout
- Running testsTests are kept in the tests directory and are run using:> py.test
Creating Sphinx documentation:> sphinx-quickstart (Fill in the values, edit documentation, add it to version control) (Generate documentation by something like "cd docs; make html")
(See this guide for more details)
- Specifying dependencies for your package:Edit the install_requires line in src/<egg_name>/setup.py by listing all the dependent packages.
- Producing executable scripts:Edit the console_scripts section of entry_points in src/<egg_name>/setup.py. Then run buildout. The corresponding scripts will be created in the bin/ subdirectory. Note that the boilerplate project already contains one dummy script as an example.
- Debugging the code manually:Simply run bin/python. This generated interpreter script has the project package included in the path.
Publishing the package on Pypi:> cd src/<egg_name> > python setup.py register sdist upload
Creating an egg or a windows installer for the package:> cd src/<egg_name> > python setup.py bdist_egg or > python setup.py bdist_wininst
- Travis-CI integration:To use the Travis-CI continuous integration service, follow the instructions at the Travis-CI website to register an account and connect your Github repository to Travis. The boilerplate code contains a minimal .travis.yml configuration file that might help you get started.
- Other tools:The initial buildout.cfg includes several useful code-checking tools under the [tools] section. Adapt this list to your needs (remember to run buildout each time you change buildout.cfg).
- Working with setup.py:If you are working on a small project you might prefer to drop the whole buildout business completely and only work from within the package directory (i.e. make src\<egg_name> your project root). In this case you should know that you can use> python setup.py develop
to include the package into the system-wide Python path. Once this is done, you can run tests via:> python setup.py test
Finally, to remove the package from the system-wide Python path, run:> python setup.py develop -u
- Developing multi-package projects:Sometimes you might need to split your project into several packages, or use a customized version of some package in your project. In this case, put additional packages as subdirectories of src/ alongside the original src/<egg_name>, and register them in buildout.cfg. For example, if you want to add a new package to your project, do> cd src/ > cookiecutter https://github.com/audreyr/cookiecutter-pypackage.git or > paster create <new_package_name>
Then add src/<new_package_name> to version control and add the directory src/<new_package_name> to the develop list in buildout.cfg. Also, if necessary, add <new_package_name> to the [main] part of buildout.cfg and mention it in the [pytest] configuration section of setup.cfg.
- PyPI Page: http://pypi.python.org/pypi/python_boilerplate_template
- Github: https://github.com/konstantint/python-boilerplate-template
- Cookiecutter version: https://github.com/konstantint/cookiecutter-python-boilerplate
- Blog post: http://fouryears.eu/2014/03/19/structure-of-a-python-project/
- Related projects: , , .
Copyright & License
Copyright (c) 2014, Konstantin Tretyakov. MIT License.