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WebPush publication library

Project description

|Build\_Status| |Requirements Status|

Webpush Data encryption library for Python

This is a work in progress. This library is available on `pypi as
pywebpush <>`__. Source is
available on `github <>`__.


You'll need to run ``python virtualenv``. Then

.. code:: commandline

bin/pip install -r requirements.txt
bin/python develop


In the browser, the promise handler for
`registration.pushManager.subscribe() <>`__
returns a
`PushSubscription <>`__
object. This object has a .toJSON() method that will return a JSON
object that contains all the info we need to encrypt and push data.

As illustration, a ``subscription_info`` object may look like:

.. code:: json

{"endpoint": "", "keys": {"auth": "k8J...", "p256dh": "BOr..."}}

How you send the PushSubscription data to your backend, store it
referenced to the user who requested it, and recall it when there's a
new push subscription update is left as an exercise for the reader.

Sending Data using ``webpush()`` One Call

In many cases, your code will be sending a single message to many
recipients. There's a "One Call" function which will make things easier.

.. code:: pythonstub

from pywebpush import webpush

vapid_private_key="Private Key or File Path[1]",
vapid_claims={"sub": "mailto:YourEmailAddress"})

This will encode ``data``, add the appropriate VAPID auth headers if
required and send it to the push server identified in the
``subscription_info`` block.


*subscription\_info* - The ``dict`` of the subscription info (described

*data* - can be any serial content (string, bit array, serialized JSON,
etc), but be sure that your receiving application is able to parse and
understand it. (e.g. ``data = "Mary had a little lamb."``)

*vapid\_claims* - a ``dict`` containing the VAPID claims required for
authorization (See
`py\_vapid <>`__
for more details)

*vapid\_private\_key* - Either a path to a VAPID EC2 private key PEM
file, or a string containing the DER representation. (See
`py\_vapid <>`__
for more details.) The ``private_key`` may be a base64 encoded DER
formatted private key, or the path to an OpenSSL exported private key

e.g. the output of:

.. code:: commandline

openssl ecparam -name prime256v1 -genkey -noout -out private_key.pem


.. code:: pythonstub

from pywebpush import webpush, WebPushException

"endpoint": "",
"keys": {
"p256dh": "0123abcde...",
"auth": "abc123..."
data="Mary had a little lamb, with a nice mint jelly",
"sub": "",
except WebPushException as ex:
print("I'm sorry, Dave, but I can't do that: {}", repr(ex))


If you expect to resend to the same recipient, or have more needs than
just sending data quickly, you can pass just
``wp = WebPusher(subscription_info)``. This will return a ``WebPusher``

The following methods are available:

``.send(data, headers={}, ttl=0, gcm_key="", reg_id="", content_encoding="aesgcm", curl=False)``

Send the data using additional parameters. On error, returns a


*data* Binary string of data to send

*headers* A ``dict`` containing any additional headers to send

*ttl* Message Time To Live on Push Server waiting for the client to
reconnect (in seconds)

*gcm\_key* Google Cloud Messaging key (if using the older GCM push
system) This is the API key obtained from the Google Developer Console.

*reg\_id* Google Cloud Messaging registration ID (will be extracted from
endpoint if not specified)

*content\_encoding* ECE content encoding type (defaults to "aesgcm")

*curl* Do not execute the POST, but return as a ``curl`` command. This
will write the encrypted content to a local file named
````. This command is meant to be used for debugging


to send from Chrome using the old GCM mode:

.. code:: pythonstub

WebPusher(subscription_info).send(data, headers, ttl, gcm_key)

``.encode(data, content_encoding="aesgcm")``

Encode the ``data`` for future use. On error, returns a


*data* Binary string of data to send

*content\_encoding* ECE content encoding type (defaults to "aesgcm")


.. code:: pythonstub

encoded_data = WebPush(subscription_info).encode(data)

.. |Build\_Status| image::
.. |Requirements Status| image::

## 0.7.0 (2017-02-14)
feat: update to http-ece 0.7.0 (with draft-06 support)
feat: Allow empty payloads for send()
feat: Add python3 classfiers & python3.6 travis tests
feat: Add README.rst
bug: change long to int to support python3

## 0.4.0 (2016-06-05)
feat: make python 2.7 / 3.5 polyglot

## 0.3.4 (2016-05-17)
bug: make header keys case insenstive

## 0.3.3 (2016-05-17)
bug: force key string encoding to utf8

## 0.3.2 (2016-04-28)
bug: fix issues

## 0.3 (2016-04-27)
feat: added travis, normalized directories

## 0.2 (2016-04-27)
feat: Added tests, restructured code

## 0.1 (2016-04-25)

Initial release

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