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Extension library for Python

Project description

pyxtension

| |build Status| | |Coverage Status|

pyxtension <https://github.com/asuiu/pyxtension>__ is a pure Python GNU-licensed library that includes Scala-like streams, Json with attribute access syntax, and other common-use stuff.

Installation

::

pip install pyxtension

or from Github:

::

git clone https://github.com/asuiu/pyxtension.git
cd pyxtension
python setup.py install

or

::

git submodule add https://github.com/asuiu/pyxtension.git

Modules overview

Json.py


Json
^^^^

| A ``dict`` subclass to represent a Json object. You should be able to
  use this
| absolutely anywhere you can use a ``dict``. While this is probably the
  class you
| want to use, there are a few caveats that follow from this being a
  ``dict`` under
| the hood.

**Never again will you have to write code like this**:

.. code:: python

            body = {
                'query': {
                    'filtered': {
                        'query': {
                            'match': {'description': 'addictive'}
                        },
                        'filter': {
                            'term': {'created_by': 'ASU'}
                        }
                    }
                }
            }

From now on, you may simply write the following three lines:

.. code:: python

            body = Json()
            body.query.filtered.query.match.description = 'addictive'
            body.query.filtered.filter.term.created_by = 'ASU'

streams.py

stream ^^^^^^

| stream subclasses collections.Iterable. It's the same Python iterable, but with more added methods, suitable for multithreading and multiprocess processings. | Used to create stream processing pipelines, similar to those used in Scala <http://www.scala-lang.org/>__ and MapReduce <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MapReduce>__ programming model. | Those who used Apache Spark <http://spark.apache.org/>__ RDD <http://spark.apache.org/docs/latest/programming-guide.html#rdd-operations>__ functions will find this model of processing very easy to use.

streams <https://github.com/asuiu/pyxtension/blob/master/streams.py>__


**Never again will you have to write code like this**:

.. code:: python

    > lst = xrange(1,6)
    > reduce(lambda x, y: x * y, map(lambda _: _ * _, filter(lambda _: _ % 2 == 0, lst)))
    64

From now on, you may simply write the following lines:

.. code:: python

    > the_stream = stream( xrange(1,6) )
    > the_stream.\
        filter(lambda _: _ % 2 == 0).\
        map(lambda _: _ * _).\
        reduce(lambda x, y: x * y)
    64

A Word Count `Map-Reduce <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MapReduce>`__ naive example using multiprocessing map
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

.. code:: python

    corpus = [
        "MapReduce is a programming model and an associated implementation for processing and generating large data sets with a parallel, distributed algorithm on a cluster.",
        "At Google, MapReduce was used to completely regenerate Google's index of the World Wide Web",
        "Conceptually similar approaches have been very well known since 1995 with the Message Passing Interface standard having reduce and scatter operations."]

    def reduceMaps(m1, m2):
        for k, v in m2.iteritems():
            m1[k] = m1.get(k, 0) + v
        return m1

    word_counts = stream(corpus).\
        mpmap(lambda line: stream(line.lower().split(' ')).countByValue()).\
        reduce(reduceMaps)

Basic methods
^^^^^^^^^^^^^

**map(f)**
''''''''''

Identic with builtin ``map`` but returns a stream

**mpmap(f, poolSize=16)**
'''''''''''''''''''''''''

Parallel ordered map using ``multiprocessing.Pool.imap()``.

It can replace the ``map`` when need to split computations to multiple
cores, and order of results matters.

It spawns at most ``poolSize`` processes and applies the ``f`` function.

The elements in the result stream appears in the same order they appear
in the initial iterable.

::

    :type f: (T) -> V
    :rtype: `stream`

**mpfastmap(f, poolSize=16)**
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

Parallel ordered map using ``multiprocessing.Pool.imap_unordered()``.

It can replace the ``map`` when the ordered of results doesn't matter.

It spawns at most ``poolSize`` processes and applies the ``f`` function.

The elements in the result stream appears in the unpredicted order.

::

    :type f: (T) -> V
    :rtype: `stream`

**fastmap(f, poolSize=16)**
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''

| Parallel unordered map using multithreaded pool.
| It can replace the ``map`` when the ordered of results doesn't matter.

It spawns at most ``poolSize`` threads and applies the ``f`` function.

The elements in the result stream appears in the unpredicted order.

Because of CPython
`GIL <https://wiki.python.org/moin/GlobalInterpreterLock>`__ it's most
usefull for I/O or CPU intensive consuming native functions, or on
Jython or IronPython interpreters.

:type f: (T) -> V

:rtype: ``stream``

\*\*flatMap(predicate=\_IDENTITY\_FUNC)\*\*
:param predicate: is a function that will receive elements of self collection and return an iterable
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

By default predicate is an identity function

:type predicate: (V)-> collections.Iterable[T]

:return: will return stream of objects of the same type of elements from the stream returned by predicate()

Example:

.. code:: python

    stream([[1, 2], [3, 4], [4, 5]]).flatMap().toList() == [1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5]

**filter(predicate)**
'''''''''''''''''''''

identic with builtin filter, but returns stream

**reversed()**
''''''''''''''

returns reversed stream

**exists(predicate)**
'''''''''''''''''''''

Tests whether a predicate holds for some of the elements of this
sequence.

:rtype: bool

Example:

.. code:: python

    stream([1, 2, 3]).exists(0) -> False
    stream([1, 2, 3]).exists(1) -> True

\*\*keyBy(keyfunc = \_IDENTITY\_FUNC)\*\*
Transforms stream of values to a stream of tuples (key, value)
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

:param keyfunc: function to map values to keys

:type keyfunc: (V) -> T

:return: stream of Key, Value pairs

:rtype: stream[( T, V )]

Example:

.. code:: python

    stream([1, 2, 3, 4]).keyBy(lambda _:_ % 2) -> [(1, 1), (0, 2), (1, 3), (0, 4)]

**groupBy()**
'''''''''''''

groupBy([keyfunc]) -> Make an iterator that returns consecutive keys and
groups from the iterable.

The iterable needs not to be sorted on the same key function, but the
keyfunction need to return hasable objects.

:param keyfunc: [Optional] The key is a function computing a key value for each element.

:type keyfunc: (T) -> (V)

:return: (key, sub-iterator) grouped by each value of key(value).

:rtype: stream[ ( V, slist[T] ) ]

Example:

.. code:: python

    stream([1, 2, 3, 4]).groupBy(lambda _: _ % 2) -> [(0, [2, 4]), (1, [1, 3])]

**countByValue()**
''''''''''''''''''

Returns a collections.Counter of values

Example

.. code:: python

    stream(['a', 'b', 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd']).countByValue() == {'a': 2, 'b': 2, 'c': 1, 'd': 1}

**distinct()**
''''''''''''''

Returns stream of distinct values. Values must be hashable.

.. code:: python

    stream(['a', 'b', 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd']).distinct() == {'a', 'b', 'c', 'd'}

**reduce(f, init=None)**
''''''''''''''''''''''''

same arguments with builtin reduce() function

**toSet()**
'''''''''''

returns sset() instance

**toList()**
''''''''''''

returns slist() instance

**toMap()**
'''''''''''

returns sdict() instance

**sorted(key=None, cmp=None, reverse=False)**
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

same arguments with builtin sorted()

**size()**
''''''''''

returns length of stream. Use carefully on infinite streams.

**join(f)**
'''''''''''

Returns a string joined by f. Proivides same functionality as str.join()
builtin method.

if f is basestring, uses it to join the stream, else f should be a
callable that returns a string to be used for join

**mkString(f)**
'''''''''''''''

identic with join(f)

**take(n)**
'''''''''''

::

    returns first n elements from stream

**head()**
''''''''''

::

    returns first element from stream

**zip()**
'''''''''

::

    the same behavior with itertools.izip()

\*\*unique(predicate=\_IDENTITY\_FUNC)\*\*
Returns a stream of unique (according to predicate) elements appearing in the same order as in original stream
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

::

    The items returned by predicate should be hashable and comparable.

Statistics related methods
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

**entropy()**
'''''''''''''

calculates the Shannon entropy of the values from stream

**pstddev()**
'''''''''''''

Calculates the population standard deviation.

**mean()**
''''''''''

returns the arithmetical mean of the values

**sum()**
'''''''''

returns the sum of elements from stream

\*\*min(key=\_IDENTITY\_FUNC)\*\*
same functionality with builtin min() funcion
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

\*\*min\_default(default, key=\_IDENTITY\_FUNC)\*\*
same functionality with min() but returns :default: when called on empty streams
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

**max()**
'''''''''

same functionality with builtin max()

\*\*maxes(key=\_IDENTITY\_FUNC)\*\*
returns a stream of max values from stream
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

\*\*mins(key=\_IDENTITY\_FUNC)\*\*
returns a stream of min values from stream
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

Other classes
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

slist
^^^^^

Inherits ``streams.stream`` and built-in ``list`` classes, and keeps in
memory a list allowing faster index access

sset
^^^^

Inherits ``streams.stream`` and built-in ``set`` classes, and keeps in
memory the whole set of values

sdict
^^^^^

Inherits ``streams.stream`` and built-in ``dict``, and keeps in memory
the dict object.

defaultstreamdict
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Inherits ``streams.sdict`` and adds functionality of
``collections.defaultdict`` from stdlib

`Json <https://github.com/asuiu/pyxtension/blob/master/Json.py>`__
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

`Json <https://github.com/asuiu/pyxtension/blob/master/Json.py>`__ is a
module that provides mapping objects that allow their elements to be
accessed both as keys and as attributes:

.. code:: python

        > from pyxtension.Json import Json
        > a = Json({'foo': 'bar'})
        > a.foo
        'bar'
        > a['foo']
        'bar'

Attribute access makes it easy to create convenient, hierarchical
settings objects:

.. code:: python

        with open('settings.yaml') as fileobj:
            settings = Json(yaml.safe_load(fileobj))

        cursor = connect(**settings.db.credentials).cursor()

        cursor.execute("SELECT column FROM table;")

Basic Usage
~~~~~~~~~~~

| Json comes with two different classes, ``Json``, and ``JsonList``.
| Json is fairly similar to native ``dict`` as it extends it an is a
  mutable mapping that allow creating, accessing, and deleting key-value
  pairs as attributes.
| ``JsonList`` is similar to native ``list`` as it extends it and offers
  a way to transform the ``dict`` objects from inside also in ``Json``
  instances.

Construction
^^^^^^^^^^^^

Directly from a JSON string
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''

.. code:: python

    > Json('{"key1": "val1", "lst1": [1,2] }')
    {u'key1': u'val1', u'lst1': [1, 2]}

From ``tuple``\ s:
''''''''''''''''''

.. code:: python

    > Json( ('key1','val1'), ('lst1', [1,2]) )
    {'key1': 'val1', 'lst1': [1, 2]}
    # keep in mind that you should provide at least two tuples with key-value pairs

As a built-in ``dict``
''''''''''''''''''''''

.. code:: python

    > Json( [('key1','val1'), ('lst1', [1,2])] )
    {'key1': 'val1', 'lst1': [1, 2]}

    Json({'key1': 'val1', 'lst1': [1, 2]})
    {'key1': 'val1', 'lst1': [1, 2]}

Convert to a ``dict``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

.. code:: python

    > json = Json({'key1': 'val1', 'lst1': [1, 2]})
    > json.toOrig()
    {'key1': 'val1', 'lst1': [1, 2]}

Valid Names
^^^^^^^^^^^

Any key can be used as an attribute as long as:

#. The key represents a valid attribute (i.e., it is a string comprised
   only of
   alphanumeric characters and underscores that doesn't start with a
   number)
#. The key does not shadow a class attribute (e.g., get).

Attributes vs. Keys
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

| There is a minor difference between accessing a value as an attribute
  vs.
| accessing it as a key, is that when a dict is accessed as an
  attribute, it will
| automatically be converted to a ``Json`` object. This allows you to
  recursively
| access keys::

.. code:: python

        > attr = Json({'foo': {'bar': 'baz'}})
        > attr.foo.bar
        'baz'

| Relatedly, by default, sequence types that aren't ``bytes``, ``str``,
  or ``unicode``
| (e.g., ``list``\ s, ``tuple``\ s) will automatically be converted to
  ``tuple``\ s, with any
| mappings converted to ``Json``:

.. code:: python

        > attr = Json({'foo': [{'bar': 'baz'}, {'bar': 'qux'}]})
        > for sub_attr in attr.foo:
        >     print(sub_attr.bar)
        'baz'
        'qux'

| To get this recursive functionality for keys that cannot be used as
  attributes,
| you can replicate the behavior by using dict syntax on ``Json``
  object::


.. code:: python

        > json = Json({1: {'two': 3}})
        > json[1].two
        3

``JsonList`` usage examples:

.. code:: python

    > json = Json('{"lst":[1,2,3]}')
    > type(json.lst)
    <class 'pyxtension.Json.JsonList'>

    > json = Json('{"1":[1,2]}')
    > json["1"][1]
    2

Assignment as keys will still work::

.. code:: python

        > json = Json({'foo': {'bar': 'baz'}})
        > json['foo']['bar'] = 'baz'
        > json.foo
        {'bar': 'baz'}

License
~~~~~~~

| pyxtension is released under a GNU Public license.
| The idea for
  `Json <https://github.com/asuiu/pyxtension/blob/master/Json.py>`__
  module was inspired from
  `addict <https://github.com/mewwts/addict%3E>`__ and
  `AttrDict <https://github.com/bcj/AttrDict>`__,
| but it has a better performance with lower memory consumption.

.. |build Status| image:: https://travis-ci.org/asuiu/pyxtension.svg?branch=master
   :target: https://travis-ci.org/asuiu/pyxtension
.. |Coverage Status| image:: https://coveralls.io/repos/asuiu/pyxtension/badge.svg?branch=master&service=github
   :target: https://coveralls.io/github/asuiu/pyxtension?branch=master


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