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RadosGW client for Ceph S3 storage

Project description


radula is a small utility to add some friendliness to
`RadosGW <>`__ for our team
working with `Ceph <>`__ for S3-like storage. Little
more than a wrapper for
`boto <>`__ radula saves us time
and headache by using nice defaults.

The primary functions for the current version are

- Inspect radosgw bucket/key ACLs
- Spot differences between bucket and key ACLs
- Allow or disallow user read/write to buckets and keys
- When modifying a bucket ACL, modify the ACLs for keys as well
- Verify uploads using checksums
- Upload using multiple threads

The name, "radula", is a `cephalopod-related
term <>`__ that hit
close to RADOS. It's not a tongue, or really even teeth; it's more like
if your tongue had teeth. Spooky.


Install radula from `pypi <>`__ using


pip install radula

The ``radula`` command should be available in your ``$PATH``.


Install the pip packages listed in ``testing-requirements.txt`` and run ``nosetests``.


$ pip install -U -r testing-requirements.txt
$ nosetests --with-coverage --cover-package=radula

The effort to increase code coverage is ongoing.


radula uses *boto*, so all configuration is really `boto
configuration <>`__,
with some extensions to support streaming copy operations, see the Streaming Copy section below for those custom items.
Notable changes are replacing the url to amazon aws with that of one of your gateways.
Where applicable, you may have to disable SSL as a default option.


# example shared /etc/boto.cfg
host =

is_secure = False

To add your personal credentials, fill in the following in ``~/.boto``:


aws_access_key_id = abcdef...
aws_secret_access_key = 0123456...

[profile other_role]
aws_access_key_id = wxyz...
aws_secret_access_key = 9765432...


The command structure for radula is
``radula [flags] command subject [target]``. The "subject" matter or
"target" of a request could be a local resource or a remote one,
depending on the command being executed. These could be read as "source"
and "destination" in some cases, but the intent is simply to flow left
to right.


$ usage: radula [-h] [--version] [-r] [-w] [-t THREADS] [-p PROFILE]
[-d DESTINATION] [-f] [-y] [-c CHUNK_SIZE] [-l] [-L LOG_LEVEL]
[-v] [-n] [-z] [-e] [-A] [-i] [-k] [--no-acl]
[subject] [target] ...

RadosGW client

positional arguments:
acls, get-acl, set-acl, compare-acl, sync-acl,
allow, allow-user,
disallow, disallow-user,
mb, make-bucket,
rb, remove-bucket,
lb, list-buckets,
put, up, upload,
get, dl, download,
mpl, mp-list, multipart-list,
mpc, mp-clean, multipart-clean,
rm, remove,
keys, ls, list,
info, size, etag,
remote-rehash, verify,
sc, streaming-copy, copy,
remote-md5, local-md5,
subject Subject
target Target
remainder Additional targets for supporting commands. See README

optional arguments:
-h, --help show this help message and exit
--version Prints version number
-r, --read During a user grant, permission includes reads
-w, --write During a user grant, permission includes writes
-t THREADS, --threads THREADS
Number of threads to use for uploads. Default=3
-p PROFILE, --profile PROFILE
Boto profile. Overrides AWS_PROFILE environment var
Destination boto profile, required for streaming copy
-f, --force Overwrite local files without confirmation
-y, --verify Verify uploads after they complete. Uses --threads.
When passed a destination profile, download and hash
keys on both ends
multipart upload chunk size in bytes.
-l, --long-keys prepends bucketname to key results.
-L LOG_LEVEL, --log-level LOG_LEVEL
Log level, [DEBUG, 10, INFO, 20, etc]
-v, --verbose Verbose. Equiv to -L DEBUG
-n, --dry-run Print would-be deletions without deleting
-z, --resume Resume uploads if needed.
-e, --encrypt Store content encrypted at rest
-A, --all-buckets act upon all buckets (info only)
-i, --ignore-existing
Calmly skip existing files; an opposite -f (otherwise
-k, --preserve-key When downloading, preserve paths in keys
--no-acl When uploading, do not sync key ACL with the bucket
ACL. Normally would.


This is a quick walkthrough of the features so far. In these scenarios,
we acting as the user ``bibby``, who owns the rados bucket ``mybucket``.
In some of the examples, we'll be manipulating the access to this bucket
for a second user called ``fred``.

Contained in the bucket are two regular files: ``hello`` and ``world``.

List available profiles

See `Boto docs <>`__ for working with profiles.


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula profiles

Displaying bucket ACL


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula get-acl mybucket
ACL for bucket: mybucket
[CanonicalUser:OWNER] Andrew Bibby = FULL_CONTROL

The command ``get-acl`` prints the acl. radula assumed that the term
``mybucket`` was a bucket, being that it was a lone term.

Displaying key ACL


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula get-acl mybucket/hello
ACL for key: mybucket/hello
[CanonicalUser:OWNER] Andrew Bibby = FULL_CONTROL

Because the term contained a slash, the subject is correctly identified
as ``hello`` within the bucket ``mybucket``.

Comparing ACLs - Keys in bucket


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula compare-acl mybucket
Bucket ACL for: mybucket
[CanonicalUser:OWNER] Andrew Bibby = FULL_CONTROL

Keys with identical ACL: 2
Keys with different ACL: 0

The ``compare-acl`` command on a bucket will report of the *sameness* of
ACLs across the keys as compared to the bucket. We'll see this again
later in another example.

This *can* be run against one key, limiting the compared objects to the
one key against its bucket


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula check-acl mybucket/hello
Bucket ACL for: mybucket
[CanonicalUser:OWNER] Andrew Bibby = FULL_CONTROL

Keys with identical ACL: 1
Keys with different ACL: 0

Set a canned ACL

Can set the ACL of a bucket or key to one of the four AWS "canned"
policies using ``set-acl``. In this scenario, the *subject* can be a
bucket or a key, with the *target* being a canned policy name.


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula set-acl mybucket/hello public-read
<< prints the output of get-acl after completing the operation

Changing the ACL on a bucket **will** will be applied to the keys as
well, potentially overwriting any custom access given to keys. Run
``compare-acl`` before setting the bucket ACL to discover any special
differences, as they may need to be recreated after the ``set-acl``
operation completes.

Sync ACLs

Should a difference of ACL had appeared, we could forcefully replace all
key ACLs with the bucket's ACL using ``sync-acl``.


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula sync-acl mybucket
Bucket ACL for: mybucket
[CanonicalUser:OWNER] Andrew Bibby = FULL_CONTROL

Setting bucket's ACL on hello
Setting bucket's ACL on world

This is a ``PUT`` command, so it doesn't bother to look at the current
ACL for the keys; it just puts a copy of the bucket's own ACL.

``sync-acl`` can be done on a single key as well.


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula sync-acl mybucket/world
Setting bucket's ACL on world

Granting access to a key

To grant access to another user, we'll make use of some new flags.
``-r`` and/or ``-w`` to indicate read and write. A grant may have one or
both of ``rw``. If both are absent, ``read`` is assumed. Permissions are
separate, so it is possible to have a *write-only* grant.

For permission grants the *subject* is the **user** (as far as the usage
format in the help text goes), and the *target* is the **key or


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula allow fred mybucket/hello
granting READ to fred on key hello

Multiple grants to the same user for the same permission are possible in
rados and on s3, but radula will guard against that and ignore the
duplicate entry. Here, we'll add "read-write":


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula -wr allow fred mybucket/hello
User fred already has READ for key hello, skipping
granting WRITE to fred on key hello

Granting access to a bucket

| Granting access to a bucket works the same way.
| When a bucket ACL is modified, **so are all of its keys**. That action is really the whole purpose behind radula.


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula -wr allow fred mybucket
granting READ to fred on bucket mybucket
granting WRITE to fred on bucket mybucket
User fred already has READ for key <Key: mybucket,hello>, skipping
User fred already has WRITE for key <Key: mybucket,hello>, skipping
granting READ to fred on key <Key: mybucket,world>
granting WRITE to fred on key <Key: mybucket,world>

With both ``allow`` and ``disallow``, if an ACL difference exists
between the bucket and a key, that difference may still exist after the
modification. With these commands, we aren't **syncing** a modified
bucket ACL down to the keys; we're applying the same singular change to
each target individually.

Disallow (buckets and keys)

Removing permissions works similarly to granting access, but with some
differences. One assumption is about the omission of the read-write
flags; If neither are present, both permissions are removed.

| start | flags | result |
| RW | -r | W |
| RW | -w | R |
| RW | -rw | - |
| RW | - | - |

ACLs for the keys are modified first. The user's access cannot be taken
away from the bucket if it still exists for one of its keys, so the
changes take place from bottom up.

Creating an difference and syncing down

Starting with a blank slate:


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula -wr disallow fred mybucket
No change for <Key: mybucket,hello>
No change for <Key: mybucket,world>
No change for mybucket

Give ``fred`` read on the bucket


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula -r allow fred mybucket
granting READ to fred on bucket mybucket
granting READ to fred on key <Key: mybucket,hello>
granting READ to fred on key <Key: mybucket,world>

Give ``fred`` write on one key


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula -w allow fred mybucket/world
granting WRITE to fred on key world

Confirm the difference..


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula compare-acl mybucket
Bucket ACL for: mybucket
[CanonicalUser:OWNER] Andrew Bibby = FULL_CONTROL
[CanonicalUser] Fred Fredricks = READ

Difference in world:
[CanonicalUser:OWNER] Andrew Bibby = FULL_CONTROL
[CanonicalUser] Fred Fredricks = READ
[CanonicalUser] Fred Fredricks = WRITE

Keys with identical ACL: 1
Keys with different ACL: 1

Plow the keys with the bucket's settings.


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula sync-acl mybucket
Bucket ACL for: mybucket
[CanonicalUser:OWNER] Andrew Bibby = FULL_CONTROL
[CanonicalUser] Fred Fredricks = READ

Setting bucket's ACL on hello
Setting bucket's ACL on world

[bibby@machine ~]$ radula check-acl mybucket
Bucket ACL for: mybucket
[CanonicalUser:OWNER] Andrew Bibby = FULL_CONTROL
[CanonicalUser] Fred Fredricks = READ

Keys with identical ACL: 2
Keys with different ACL: 0

Upload and Download

These functions are similar for moving files in and out of the radosgw.
Its intention is not to replace better tools like ``s3cmd``, but rather
to cover some very common use cases so that the installation and
configuration of additional libraries *might* not be needed.

put, up, upload

The commands ``put``, ``up``, and ``upload`` are equivalent. For these
examples, I've chosen to use ``up``.

The syntax is ``radula up {source} {target}``, where *source* is a local
file or a glob. The *target* is a in radosgw path, and its behavior
depends on the singularity or plurality of the source given.

If the target path ends with a slash (``/``), then the key is presumed
to be the basename of the object appended at that path. *See table

If multiple source files are given, the key will always assume it is
part of a path, making an ending slash wholly optional.

When using globs, it's important to know that the argument must be
quoted to avoid shell expansion. For example to upload all files
starting with the letter ``a`` from ``path``, the command would be


radula up 'path/a*' bucket/path

| source | target | result |
| /some/file | bucket | bucket/file |
| /some/file | bucket/file | bucket/file |
| /some/file | bucket/named | bucket/named |
| /some/file | bucket/named/ | bucket/named/file |
| /some/f\* | bucket/named | bucket/named/file, bucket/named/file2 |
| /some/f\* | bucket/named/ | bucket/named/file, bucket/named/file2 |

For faster multipart uploads, the default number of threads used is
``3``, but this can be set during upload using the ``-t`` option.


# upload a large file using 16 threads
radula -t 16 up large_file bucket

Upload verification via checksum can be enabled by adding the ``-y``,
``--verify`` flag.

As of ``radula v0.6.6``, uploads to a remote key that already exists
will abort if `-f, --force` is not also given. The reason is to guard
against accidentally loss of data in ceph.

Should portions of a multipart upload fail, there is a chance that it
can be resumed. A reattempt at upload should abort citing the presence
of a lingering multipart upload in progress. The `multipart-list` command
should confirm as much. Adding the ``-z,--resume`` flag to the original
upload command will inspect the uploaded parts and upload those that are absent
or differ in checksum. The resume will be slower for each part, as the local
parts are hashed and compared to the uploaded parts. Adding a verification step
with ``-y,--verify`` is recommended.


# an upload resumation with verification
radula -t 16 -zy up large_file bucket

get, dl, download

The commands ``get``, ``dl``, and ``downlaod`` are equivalent. For these
examples, I've chosen to use ``dl``.

The the syntax is ``radula dl {source} [{target}]``. The *target* is
optional, and will default to the basename of the remote file to be
stored in the current working directory.

Unlike ``up``, the download commands do not support globs.

| source | target | result |
| bucket/path/file | | ./file |
| bucket/path/file | some\_file | ./some\_file |
| bucket/path/file | dir | dir/file |
| bucket/path/file | dir/named | dir/named |

No attempt is made to create local paths that do not exist prior to
download; in the table above ``dir`` is an existing directory.

If a file with the target name already exists, ``radula`` will ask if
you wish to overwrite it unless the ``-f, --force`` flag is enabled.

As of ``radula v0.6.6``, downloads are multi-threaded using 10 processes by default,
which can be controlled with the ``-t, --threads`` flag.
This is known to have issues writing to glusterfs, so `-t 1` is recommended in that instance.

In ``radula v0.7.1``, default threads was reduced to 3.

As of ``radula v0.7.9``, uploads may include the ``-e,--encrypt`` flag to instruct Rados to store the data encrypted at rest, using its own internal mechanisms. When encrypted data is copied to another cluster, the remote copy should take on this setting without explicitly being told to.

recursive upload/download

You can upload entire directories with its structure intact. Assume there is a directory such as this:


$ tree projroot/
├── subdir_a
│   ├── ef90d4f2
│   └── efd7f715
└── subdir_b
├── 10eaf5f0
├── 80920f14
├── a6fcadbf
├── a8dd1085
└── third_dir
├── 980a978f
└── e50f86fe

Uploading `projroot` will copy the directory structure at the location specified. *Beware: full paths (``/home/user/..``) given as sources will upload to keys using that full path.


$ radula up projroot bucket/projects
$ radula -p abibby keys abibby/projects/\*

Because keys are inherently flat on s3, to download recursively you'll need a combination of a glob pattern and the ``--preserve-key`` flag.


$ radula --preserve-key dl bucket/projects/projroot/

The entire key is used to create the local structure, so in this case, the ``projects`` dir will be recreated if it had gone missing.


An alternative to `download` is `cat`, which prints the contents of a remote subject
to `stdout`.


$ echo "Hello there you" > hello
$ radula up hello mybucket/hello
INFO:radula:Finished uploading 16.00 B in 0.08s (188.82 Bps)
$ radula cat mybucket/hello
Hello there you

In radula 0.7+, `cat` accept the `-c`,`--chunk-size` parameter to print part of the remote file.
Unique to this command is that the chunk param can be a range of integers or humanized units.
If humanized units (ie, `2kb`) are used, they'll be converted into integer to conform with the
[HTTP Range header spec](

When using a range query, the end of the range may be omitted to include everything from
the starting position to the end of the file.

Omitting the first argument is not supported. Starting a range with zero (`0-n`) *does work*, but it is recommended to simply provide `n` by itself, because the **range in inclusive**. The range `0-100` would
output 101 bytes, while input `100` returns 100.

A `ValueError` will be raised if end of the range is before the starting position.


# first two bytes
$ radula -c 2 cat mybucket/hello

# 2 bytes in until the end
$ radula -c '2-' cat mybucket/hello

# first byte to second byte (inclusive)
$ radula -c '1-2' cat mybucket/hello

verify uploads

Checksums can be obtained using ``local-md5`` and ``remote-md5``, and
easily compared with ``verify``.

The ``local-md5`` command expects one local file argument, and will
generate the same hash that is expected to be found on the remote.
Multipart upload size matters, so the output hash may differ if uploaded
by another mechanism.

The ``remote-md5`` command expects one remote file uri, ie
*mybucket/path/myfile*. It will return the ``etag`` attribute associated
with the key, which will typically be a file md5 or conglomeration of
multipart upload hashs with a number tacked at the end.

Calling ``verify [local_file] [remote_file]`` simply runs the operations
mentioned above and tests their outputs for likeness.

To view raw metadata about a remote target, use ``info [remote_file]``.
The output will contain the etag and other data in JSON format.
For quick access to size and hash data, commands ``etag`` and ``size``
are available to provide this data from the larger ``info`` set.


Remote objects can be deleted using the commands `rm` or `remove`. While the majority of `radula` commands follow the position pattern of `subject, target`, the deletion command operates exclusively on remote objects. Therefore, it is one of the few that accept an arbitrary number of arguments. Globs are supported **if** they are quoted so as not to expand in the shell.

Use the `-n`,`--dry-run` flag to preview deletions without making any changes.


[bibby@machine ~]$ radula --dry-run rm mybucket/x
DRY-RUN: rm mybucket/x

[bibby@machine ~]$ radula rm mybucket/x 'mybucket/y*'

Cleaning up messes

If multipart uploads go awry, they can leave behind some unfinished
artifacts in the form of orphaned upload parts. ``radula`` can now list
these can clean up.

The commands ``multipart-list``, ``mp-list``, and ``mpl`` are
equivalent. For these examples, I've chosen to use ``mp-list``.

Listing can be done by bucket or for a key:


# list multipart uploads for a bucket
$ radula mp-list mybucket
bibby ones.img 2~Q8r-pWTmMTbx_rhHa8-u3I3m-vjCF5F Andrew Bibby 2015-09-23T19:39:14.000Z
bibby zeros.img 2~MvM7KTr2sMcS_SfVzWO7T0chzJRUqvm Andrew Bibby 2015-09-23T19:35:44.000Z

# list multipart uploads for a key
$ radula mp-list mybucket/zeros.img
bibby zeros.img 2~MvM7KTr2sMcS_SfVzWO7T0chzJRUqvm Andrew Bibby 2015-09-23T19:35:44.000Z

Cleaning up a failed multi-part upload is as easy using a *clean*
command in place of *list*.

The commands ``multipart-clean``, ``mp-clean``, and ``mpc`` are
equivalent. For these examples, I've chosen to use ``mp-clean``.


# clean multipart uploads for a key
$ radula mp-clean mybucket/zeros.img
INFO:root:Canceling zeros.img 2~MvM7KTr2sMcS_SfVzWO7T0chzJRUqvm

# clean multipart uploads for a bucket
$ radula mp-list mybucket
INFO:root:Canceling ones.img 2~Q8r-pWTmMTbx_rhHa8-u3I3m-vjCF5F

Streaming Copy

Since radula 0.5.0, users are able to copy between different ceph
installations, or different buckets within the same installation,
without copying to the local disk. To facilitate this in the friendliest
possible manner, we've extended the ``boto`` configuration slightly to
be able to specify a separate s3 host for a particular profile.

The ``profile`` sections of ``~/.boto`` or ``/etc/boto.cfg`` can now
accept the following items that are not supported by regular boto:

- host (string)
- port (int)
- is\_secure (bool)

An example extended profile


[profile second_ceph]
aws_access_key_id = wxyz...
aws_secret_access_key = 9765432...
host = second.ceph.of.mine
port = 8184

The commans ``streaming-copy`` and ``sc`` are equivalent. For these
example, I've chosen to use ``sc``.

When copying, the ``-p`` flag will apply the aws\_profile for the
*source*/subject. Omitting this flag will use the default boto
credentials for the source.

The ``-d`` flag will specify the profile used for the
*destination*/target to receive the files. Naming ``-d Default`` will
use the default boto credentials for the destination.

Copy a file from first-ceph to second-ceph

``radula -d second sc mybucket/file other_bucket/file``

The above command used the default boto profile to send ``file`` from
``mybucket`` located on the default ceph to the ceph defined in the
profile named ``second``.

Copy a file from second-ceph to first-ceph

``radula -p second -d Default sc other_bucket/file mybucket/file``

This is the inverse of the previous example. Using the ``second``
profile as the source/subject (as specified by ``-p second``), we're
transfering a file to ``mybucket/file`` located on the default s3 using
the default profile (as specified by ``-d Default``).

Copy profile to profile

Avoiding the use of default profiles all together, you can copy using
both ``-p`` and ``-d`` flags.

``radula -p here -d there sc here/stuff there/stuff``

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