Skip to main content

Recombinator - Statistical Resampling in Python

Project description

Recombinator - Statistical Resampling in Python

Overview

Recombinator is a Python package for statistical resampling in Python. It provides various algorithms for the iid bootstrap, the block bootstrap, as well as optimal block-length selection.

Algorithms

  • I.I.D. bootstrap: Standard i.i.d. bootstrap for one-dimensional and multi-dimensional data, balanced bootstrap, anthithetic bootstrap
  • Block based bootstrap: Moving Block Bootstrap, Circular Block Bootstrap, Stationary Bootstrap, Tapered Block-Bootstrap
  • Optimal block-length selection algorithm for Circular Block Bootstrap and Stationary Bootstrap

Table of Contents

  1. Installation
  2. Getting Started

Installation

Latest Release

    pip install recombinator

or

    pip3 install recombinator

if not using Anaconda.

To get the latest version, clone the repository from github, open a terminal/command prompt, navigate to the root folder and install via

    pip install .

or

    pip3 install . 

if not using Anaconda.

Most Recent Version on GitHub

  1. Clone the github repository via
    git clone https://github.com/InvestmentSystems/recombinator.git
  1. Navigate to the Recombinator base directory and run
    pip install .

Getting Started

Please see the Jupyter notebooks 'notebooks/Block Bootstrap.ipynb' and 'notebooks/IID Bootstrap.ipynb' for more examples.

Basic I.I.D. Bootstrap

Import modules

import matplotlib
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline

import numpy as np

from recombinator.iid_bootstrap import \
    iid_balanced_bootstrap, \
    iid_bootstrap, \
    iid_bootstrap_vectorized, \
    iid_bootstrap_via_choice, \
    iid_bootstrap_via_loop, \
    iid_bootstrap_with_antithetic_resampling

For illustrative purposes, generate an original dataset of sample size n=100 to resample from.

n=100
np.random.seed(1)
x = np.abs(np.random.randn(n))

Estimate the 75th percentile from the original sample

percentile = 75
original_statistic = np.percentile(x, percentile)
print(original_statistic)

Now generate 100000 new bootstrap samples by drawing from the original sample with replacement.

R = 100000
x_resampled = iid_bootstrap(x, replications=R)

This produces a 100000 x 100 dimensional NumPy array. Each row is a new sample.

If we instead wanted to resample without replacement, we could draw shorter samples. This is known as as subsampling. See these lecture notes by Charles Geyer for statistical background: http://www.stat.umn.edu/geyer/5601/notes/sub.pdf.

In recombinator, subsampling is achieved by using the keyword arguments "sub_sample_length" and "replace". To draw samples of size 50 without replacement we would write

x_resampled = iid_bootstrap(x, replications=R, sub_sample_length=50, replace=False)

Let us return to the original example of resampling at the full sample size with replacement. We are interested in the sampling distribution of a statistic (in this example the 75th percentile of the distribution). Hence, we calculate the statistic on each of the new bootstrap samples:

resampled_statistic = np.percentile(x_resampled, percentile, axis=1)

We can use Recombinator to estimate the bootstrap standard error and the 95% confidence interval of the statistic as follows.

from recombinator.statistics import \
    estimate_confidence_interval_from_bootstrap, \
    estimate_standard_error_from_bootstrap

Estimate the standard error of the estimate of the 75th percentile via bootstrap:

estimate_standard_error_from_bootstrap(bootstrap_estimates=resampled_statistic,
                                       original_estimate=original_statistic)

Estimate the 95% confidence interval of the 75th percentile via bootstrap:

estimate_confidence_interval_from_bootstrap(bootstrap_estimates=resampled_statistic, 
                                            confidence_level=95)

Recombinator supports other variations of the standard i.i.d. bootstrap (the balanced and the antithetic bootstrap). Please see the Jupyter notebook on the I.I.D. boostrap for examples.

Block-Based Bootstrap for Time-Series

Recombinator offers the following block-based approaches to resample temporally dependent data:

  • Moving Block Bootstrap - Kuensch (1989)
  • Circular Block Bootstrap - Politis and Romano (1992)
  • Stationary Bootstrap - Politis and Romano (1994)
  • Tapered Block Bootstrap - Paparoditis and Politis (2001)

Import statsmodels for the estimation of time-series models.

from statsmodels.tsa.arima_process import ArmaProcess
from statsmodels.tsa.ar_model import AR
import statsmodels.api as sm
from statsmodels.graphics.tsaplots import plot_acf

Generate a sample of length n=1000 from an AR(1) process with autoregressive coefficient 0.5:

np.random.seed(1)

# number of time periods
T = 1000

# draw random errors
e = np.random.randn(T)
y = np.zeros((T,))

# y is an AR(1) with phi_1 = 0.5
phi_1 = 0.5
y[0] = e[0]*np.sqrt(1.0/(1.0-phi_1**2))
for t in range(1, T):
    y[t]=phi_1*y[t-1] + e[t]

Optimal Block-Length

In order to preserve temporal dependence in time-series data, bootstrap algorithms sample from the original data in blocks rather than sampling single observations. A key question is what block length to use. We are using a data based block length selection algorithm due to Politis and White (2004) with corrections by Patton, Politis, and White (2007). This algorithm produces optimal block-lengths for the circular block bootstrap and the stationary bootstrap for the estimation of the variance of the mean.

Import the optimal block-length selection functionality:

from recombinator.optimal_block_length import optimal_block_length

Compute the optimal block length of the sample from the AR(1) process created above:

b_star = optimal_block_length(y)
b_star_sb = b_star[0].b_star_sb
b_star_cb = math.ceil(b_star[0].b_star_cb)
print(f'optimal block length for stationary bootstrap = {b_star_sb}')
print(f'optimal block length for circular bootstrap = {b_star_cb}')

Resampling using a Block-Based Bootstrap

We illustrate the procedure using the circular-block bootstrap.

from recombinator.block_bootstrap import circular_block_bootstrap

The true autoregressive coefficient of the process we simulated is 0.5. The estimated coefficient from the simulated time-series is obtained as follows

ar = AR(y)
estimate_from_original_data = ar.fit(maxlag=1)
print(estimate_from_original_data.params[1])

Statsmodels can produce an estimate of the standard error of the estimate of the autoregressive coefficient resorting to asymptotic theory:

print(estimate_from_original_data.bse[1])

Generate 10000 new time-series by resampling using a circular-block bootstrap

# number of replications for bootstraps (number of resampled time-series to generate)
B = 10000

y_star_cb \
    = circular_block_bootstrap(y, 
                               block_length=b_star_cb, 
                               replications=B, 
                               replace=True)

Now estimate the AR coefficient on each of the bootstrap samples

estimates_from_bootstrap = []
ar_estimates_from_bootstrap = np.zeros((B, ))

for b in range(B):
    y_bootstrap = y_star_cb[b, :]
    ar_bootstrap = AR(y_bootstrap)
    estimate_from_bootstrap = ar_bootstrap.fit(maxlag=1)
    estimates_from_bootstrap.append(estimate_from_bootstrap)
    ar_estimates_from_bootstrap[b] = estimate_from_bootstrap.params[1]

Plot the sampling distribution and compute its mean and median

plt.hist(ar_estimates_from_bootstrap, bins=20)
print(f'mean={np.mean(ar_estimates_from_bootstrap)}')
print(f'median={np.median(ar_estimates_from_bootstrap)}')

It turns out that the mean and median are below the AR coefficient estimated on the original sample. This is due to the fact that the block bootstrap approach breaks the temporal dependence whenever a new block starts. One can reduce this effect by choosing a higher block-length at the expense of reducing the number of possible permutations of the data.

Another way to reduce this issue is to use a tapered-block bootstrap which is designed to mitigate artificial structural breaks introduced by the resampling procedure at the block-transition points.

Import the function

from recombinator.tapered_block_bootstrap import tapered_block_bootstrap

Run the tapered-block bootstrap

y_star_tbb \
    = tapered_block_bootstrap(y, 
                              block_length=b_star_cb, 
                              replications=B)

Again estimate the AR coefficient on each of the new bootstrap samples

estimates_from_bootstrap = []
ar_estimates_from_bootstrap = np.zeros((B, ))

for b in range(B):
    y_bootstrap = y_star_tbb[b, :]
    ar_bootstrap = AR(y_bootstrap)
    estimate_from_bootstrap = ar_bootstrap.fit(maxlag=1)
    estimates_from_bootstrap.append(estimate_from_bootstrap)
    ar_estimates_from_bootstrap[b] = estimate_from_bootstrap.params[1]

... and plot the sampling distribution

plt.hist(ar_estimates_from_bootstrap, bins=20)
print(f'mean={np.mean(ar_estimates_from_bootstrap)}')
print(f'median={np.median(ar_estimates_from_bootstrap)}')

The mean and median of the distribution are now much closer to the estimate from the original time series.

Running Recombinator on a GPU

Resampling can be a computationally intensive task, which is highly parallelizable. The implementations of various algorithms fall into two broad categories:

  • Loop-based (via Numba)
  • Vectorized (via NumPy)

Vectorized implementations can be run on the GPU depending on the availability a GPU package with a NumPy compatible interface. To this end, vectorized implementations in Recombinator lets the user specify alternative modules and functions that are to be used internally.

A NumPy compatible package that supports both CUDA and OpenCL is Cocos available at https://github.com/michaelnowotny/cocos.

Using Cocos, resampling on the GPU using Recombinator can be performed as follows.

Import the NumPy-like Cocos package. This requires an ArrayFire installation, a compatible GPU, and the installation of Cocos.

import cocos.numerics as cn
from cocos.device import gpu_sync_wrapper, sync

I.I.D. Boostrap

Generate an original sample to work with

n = 100
cn.random.seed(1)
x_gpu = cn.absolute(cn.random.randn(n))
plt.hist(x_gpu);

Resample using an i.i.d. boostrap

x_resampled_vectorized_gpu \
    = iid_bootstrap_vectorized(x_gpu, 
                               replications=R, 
                               randint=cn.random.randint)
sync()

In this case, GPU support is achieved by simply specifying an alternative implementation of NumPy's randint function.

Block-Based Bootstrap

Transfer the array created in the time-series example above to the GPU

y_gpu = cn.array(y)

Run a circular-block boostrap on the GPU

y_star_cb \
    = circular_block_bootstrap_vectorized(y_gpu, 
                                          block_length=b_star_cb, 
                                          replications=B, 
                                          replace=True, 
                                          num_pack=cn, 
                                          choice=cn.random.choice)

Estimate the AR coefficient on each of the bootstrap samples

estimates_from_bootstrap = []
ar_estimates_from_bootstrap = np.zeros((len(y_star_cb), ))

for b in range(len(y_star_cb)):
    y_bootstrap = np.array(y_star_mb[b, :].squeeze())
    ar_bootstrap = AR(y_bootstrap)
    estimate_from_bootstrap = ar_bootstrap.fit(maxlag=1)
    estimates_from_bootstrap.append(estimate_from_bootstrap)
    ar_estimates_from_bootstrap[b] = estimate_from_bootstrap.params[1]

Plot the empirical sampling distribution and the compute its mean and median

plt.hist(ar_estimates_from_bootstrap, bins=20)
print(f'mean={np.mean(ar_estimates_from_bootstrap)}')
print(f'median={np.median(ar_estimates_from_bootstrap)}')

For the block-based bootstrap, GPU support requires the specification of a function compatible with NumPy's random.choice as well as a package (num_pack) that is compatible with NumPy.

Cocos-Specific Convenience Functions

The module recombinator.bootstrap_cocos provides Cocos specific wrapper-functions for GPU enabled vectorized bootstrap procedures.

Project details


Download files

Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.

Files for recombinator, version 0.0.3
Filename, size File type Python version Upload date Hashes
Filename, size recombinator-0.0.3-py3-none-any.whl (28.4 kB) File type Wheel Python version py3 Upload date Hashes View hashes
Filename, size recombinator-0.0.3.tar.gz (23.7 kB) File type Source Python version None Upload date Hashes View hashes

Supported by

Elastic Elastic Search Pingdom Pingdom Monitoring Google Google BigQuery Sentry Sentry Error logging AWS AWS Cloud computing DataDog DataDog Monitoring Fastly Fastly CDN SignalFx SignalFx Supporter DigiCert DigiCert EV certificate StatusPage StatusPage Status page