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ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Functions

## Project description

NumPy functions for computing daily and hourly reference ET following the ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equations (ASCE 2005).

## Usage

### Daily Example

The following demonstrates how to compute a single daily ETr value using weather data for 2015-07-01 from the Fallon, NV AgriMet station. The necessary unit conversions are shown on the input values. The raw input data is available here.

```import math
import refet

# Compute actual vapor pressure from Tdew
tdew_c = (49.84 - 32) * (5.0 / 9)                          # F -> C
ea = 0.6108 * math.exp(17.27 * tdew_c / (tdew_c + 237.3))  # kPa
# ea = refet.calcs._saturated_vapor_pressure(tdew_c)

etr = refet.Daily(
tmin=66.65, tmax=102.80, ea=ea, rs=674.07, uz=4.80, zw=3, elev=1208.5,
lat=39.4575, doy=182, method='asce',
input_units={'tmin': 'F', 'tmax': 'F', 'rs': 'Langleys', 'uz': 'mph',
'lat': 'deg'}
).etr()

print('ETr: {:.2f} mm'.format(float(etr)))
```

### Hourly Example

The following demonstrates how to compute a single hourly ETr value using weather data for 18:00 UTC (11:00 AM PDT) on 2015-07-01 from the Fallon, NV AgriMet station. The necessary unit conversions are shown on the input values. The raw input data is available here

```import refet

etr = refet.Hourly(
tmean=91.80, ea=1.20 , rs=61.16, uz=3.33, zw=3, elev=1208.5,
lat=39.4575, lon=-118.77388, doy=182, time=18, method='asce',
input_units={'tmean': 'F', 'rs': 'Langleys', 'uz': 'mph', 'lat': 'deg'}
).etr()

print('ETr: {:.2f} mm'.format(float(etr)))
```

## Input Parameters

### Required Parameters (hourly & daily)

Variable Type Description [default units]
ea ndarray Actual vapor pressure [kPa]
rs ndarray Incoming shortwave solar radiation [MJ m-2 day-1]
uz ndarray Wind speed [m s-1]
zw float Wind speed height [m]
elev ndarray Elevation [m]
lat ndarray Latitude [degrees]
doy ndarray Day of year

### Required Daily Parameters

Variable Type Description [default units]
tmin ndarray Minimum daily temperature [C]
tmax ndarray Maximum daily temperature [C]

### Required Hourly Parameters

Variable Type Description [default units]
tmean ndarray Average hourly temperature [C]
lon ndarray Longitude [degrees]
time ndarray UTC hour at start of time period

### Optional Parameters

Variable Type Description [default units]
method str
Calculation method
• ‘asce’ – Calculations will follow ASCE-EWRI 2005 (default)
• ‘refet’ – Calculations will follow RefET software
rso_type str
Override default clear sky solar radiation (Rso) calculation
Defaults to None if not set
• ‘full’ – Full clear sky solar formulation
• ‘simple’ – Simplified clear sky solar formulation
• ‘array’ – Read Rso values from “rso” function parameter
rso array_like
Clear sky solar radiation [MJ m-2 day-1]
• Only used if rso_type == ‘array’
• Defaults to None if not set
input_units dict
Override default input unit types
Input values will be converted to default unit types

## Issues

The functions have not been tested for inputs with different shapes/sizes and the broadcasting may not work correctly.

Currently the user must handle all of the file I/O and unit conversions.

The user must handle all QA/QC of the input data and no missing data will be filled.

### Cloudiness Fraction (hourly)

The cloudiness fraction (fcd) is computed as the ratio of the measured solar radiation (Rs) to the theoretical clear sky solar radiation (Rso). This ratio cannot be computed directly at night since Rso is 0. ASCE-EWRI 2005 suggests computing a representative nighttime fcd based on the fcd at sunset and/or sunrise.

In the RefET module fcd is hard coded to 1 for all time steps with very low sun angles since the hourly reference ET is computed independently for each time step.

## Calculation Method - ASCE vs. RefET

The main difference between the two “methods” is that the “asce” method attempts to follow the equations in ASCE 2005, whereas the “refet” method attempts to follow the calculations of the RefET Software as closely as possible. The output between these methods is generally negligible (if not identical for realistic numbers of significant digits). Note that the default is set to “asce” to best match the calculations a user would expect to have happen. The “refet” method was added in order to help validate to the RefET Software.

## Installation

The RefET python module can be installed with conda or pip:

```conda install refet
```

## Validation

Please see the validation document for additional details on the source of the test values and the comparison of the functions to the Ref-ET software.

## Dependencies

Modules needed to run the test suite:

## Project details

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