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Repoze Sendmail

Project description


repoze.sendmail allows coupling the sending of email messages with a transaction, using the Zope transaction manager. This allows messages to only be sent out when and if a transaction is committed, preventing users from receiving notifications about events which may not have completed successfully. Messages may be sent directly or stored in a queue for later sending. The queued mail approach is the more common and recommended path. A console application which can flush the queue, sending the messages that it finds, is included for convenience.

repoze.sendmail is a fork of zope.sendmail. Functionality that was specific to running in a Zope context has been removed, making this version more generally useful to users of other frameworks.

Note that repoze.sendmail works only under Python 2.5+ (it will not work under 2.4) and Python 3.2+. Note that the transaction package, which this package depends on, must be less than 1.2 to work under Python 2.5 (1.2 is 2.6-and-better).

Basic Tutorial

Messages are sent by means of a Delivery object. Two deliveries are included in QueuedMailDelivery and DirectMailDelivery. A delivery implements the interface defined by repoze.sendmail.interfaces.IDelivery, which consists of a single send method:

def send(fromaddr, toaddrs, message):
    """ Sends message on transaction commit. """

fromaddr is the address of the sender of the message. toaddrs is a list of email addresses for recipients of the message. message must be an instance email.message.Message and is the actual message which will be sent.

To create a queued delivery:

from email.message import Message
from import QueuedMailDelivery

message = Message()
message['From'] = 'Chris <>'
message['To'] = 'Paul <>, Tres <>'
message['Subject'] = "repoze.sendmail is a useful package"
message.set_payload("The subject line says it all.")

delivery = QueuedMailDelivery('path/to/queue')
delivery.send('', ['', ''],

The message will be added to the maildir queue in ‘path/to/queue’ when and if the current transaction is committed successsfully.

repoze.sendmail includes a console app utility for sending queued messages:

$ bin/qp path/to/queue

This will attempt to use an SMTP server at localhost to send any messages found in the queue. To see all options available:

$ bin/qp --help

Direct delivery can also be used:

from import DirectMailDelivery
from repoze.sendmail.mailer import SMTPMailer

mailer = SMTPMailer()  # Uses localhost, port 25 be default.
delivery = DirectMailDelivery(mailer)
delivery.send('', ['', ''],

repoze.sendmail hooks into the Zope transaction manager and only sends messages on transaction commit. If you are using a framework which, like repoze.bfg, does not use transactions by default, you will need to begin and commit a transaction of your own in order for mail to be sent:

import transaction
except e:
    raise e

Change history

4.0b1 (2013-01-09)

  • Dropped support for Jython until a Jython-2.7-compatible version of zope.interface becomes available.
  • Dropped support for Python 2.5.
  • Added suupport for Python 3.3.
  • Improved test for SSL feature under Python 3.x.
  • Added new tests for proper encoding of binary attachments.
  • Cauterized resource leak warnings under Python 3.2.

3.2 (2012-05-03)

  • Issue #7: fixed handling of to/from addresses with non-ascii characters when using queued mail delivery.
  • Suppressed duplicate usage message output from qp.

3.1 (2012-03-26)

  • Fixed qp queue processor mail delivery under Python 3.0.
  • Added ‘ dev’ alias (runs develop plus installs nose and coverage).

3.0 (2012-03-20)

  • Fixed Message-Id handling (see
  • Provided improved support for encoding messages to bytes. It should now be possible to represent your messages in email.message.Message objects just with unicode (excepting bytes for binary attachments) and the mailer will handler it as appropriate.
  • Added tests for cPython 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 3.2, jython 2.5 and pypy 1.8 compatibility.

2.3 (2011-05-17)

  • Queued delivery now creates a copy of the passed in messsage before adding the ‘X-Actually-{To,From}’ headers. This avoids rudely mutating the message being sent in ways that might not be expected by the sender. (LP #780000)

2.2 (2010-09-14)

  • Made debug output for SMTP mailer optional. (Thanks to Igor Stroh for patch.)

2.1 (2010-07-28)

  • Silently ignore redundant calls to abort transaction. (LP #580164)

2.0 (2010-03-10)

Represents major refactoring with a number of backwards incompatible changes. The focus of the changes is on simplifying and updating the internals, removing usage of deprecated APIs, removing unused functionality and using the email module from the standard library wherever possible. A few changes have been made solely to reduce internal complexity.

  • Public facing APIs no longer accept messages passed as strings. Messages must be instances of email.message.Message.
  • Deprecated APIs have been replaced with newer ‘email’ module throughout.
  • Functions that return message ids no longer strip containing less than and greater than characters.
  • Events were removed entirely. There was nothing in the code actually performing a notify anyway. Removes dependency on zope.event.
  • Normalized directory structure. (Got rid of ‘src’ directory.)
  • Got rid of functions to send queued mail from a thread or a daemon process. These are more appropriately handled in the calling code.
  • Removed vocabulary. It was a fossil from its days as zope.sendmail and was not used by anything.
  • Got rid of the zcml directives. These were written in such a way that you would end up putting deployment configuration in your zcml, which is a fundamentally broken pattern. Users of the ZCA may still register utilities aginst the IMailDelivery and IMailer interfaces. This is the recommended way to use repoze.sendmail with the Zope Component Architecture.
  • Removed all interfaces that did not correspond to a rational plug point. This leaves only IMailDelivery and IMailer.
  • Removed dependency on zope.i18nmessageid
  • No longer works under Python 2.4 (Python 2.5 required).

1.2 (2010-02-11)

  • Maildir storage for queue can now handle unicode passed in for message or to/from addresses.

1.1 (2009-02-24)

  • Added logging to queue processor console app.
  • Added ini config parsing to queue processor console app.

1.0 (2009-02-24)

  • Initial release
  • Copy of zope.sendmail with dependency on security removed.

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