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Library / middleware for URI-based assertions

Project description

:mod:`repoze.urispace` -- Hierarchical URI-based metadata

:Author: Tres Seaver
:Version: |version|

.. module:: repoze.urispace
:synopsis: Hierarchical URI-based metadata

.. topic:: Overview

:mod:`repoze.urispace` implements the URISpace_ 1.0 spec, as proposed
to the W3C by Akamai. Its aim is to provide an implementation of
that language as a vehicle for asserting declarative metadata about a
resource based on pattern matching against its URI.

Once asserted, such metadata can be used to guide the application in
serving the resource, with possible applciations including:

- Setting cache control headers.

- Selecting externally applied themes, e.g. in :mod:`Deliverance`

- Restricting access, e.g. to emulate Zope's "placeful security."

URISpace Specification

The URISpace_ specification provides for matching on the following
portions of a URI:

- scheme

- authority (see URIRFC_)

o host, including wildcarding (leading only) and port

o user (if specified in the URI)

- path elements, including nesting and wildcarding, as well as
parameters, where used.

- query elements, including test for presence or for specific value

- fragments (likely irrelevant for server-side applications)

.. Note:: :mod:`repoze.urispace` does not yet provide support for
fragment matching.

The asserted metadata can be scalar, or can use RDF Bag and Sequences
to indicate sets or ordered collections.

.. Note:: :mod:`repoze.urispace` does not yet provide support for
parsing multi-valued assertions using RDF.

Operators are provided to allow for incrementally updating or clearing
the value for a given metadata element. Specified operators include:

Completely replace any previously asserted value with a new one.
This is the default operator.

Remove any previously asserted value.

Perform a set union: ``old | new``

Perform a set intersection: ``old & new``

Perform a set exclusion: ``old ^ new``

Perform set subtraction: ``old - new``

Perform set subtraction: ``new - old``

Insert ``new`` values at the head of ``old`` values

Insert ``new`` values at the tail of ``old`` values


Suppose we want to select different Delieverance themes and or rulesets
based on the URI of the resource being themed. In particular:

- The ``news``, ``lifestyle``, and ``sports`` sections of the site each get
custom themes, with the homepage and any other sections sharing the
default theme.

- Within the news section, the ``world``, ``national``, and ``local``
sections all use a different theme URL (one with the desired color
scheme name encoded as a query string).

- Within any section, the ``index.html`` page should use a different
ruleset, than that for stories in that section (whose final path element
will be ``<slug>.html``): the index page's HTML structured very differently
from that used for stories.

A URISpace file specifying these policies would look like:

.. include:: examples/dv_news.xml

Given that URISpace file, one can test how given URIs matches using
the ``uri_test`` script::

$ /path/to/bin/uri_test examples/dv_news.xml \ \ \ \ \ \ \
rules =
theme =

rules =
theme =

rules =
theme =

rules =
theme =

rules =
theme =

rules =
theme =

rules =
theme =

Using a URISpace parser in Python Code

Once parsing is complete, the URISpace is available as tree-like object.
The canonical operators to extract metadata for a given URI are:

.. code-block:: python

from urlparse import urlsplit
scheme, nethost, path, query, fragment = urlsplit(uri)

path = path.split('/')
if len(path) > 1 and path[0] == '':
path = path[1:]

info = {'scheme': scheme,
'nethost': nethost,
'path': path,
'query': parse_qs(query, keep_blank_values=1),
'fragment': fragment,
operators = urispace.collect(info)
assertions = {}
for operator in operators:

At this point, ``assertions`` will contain keys and values for all
operators found while matching against the URI.

Using URISpace as WSGI Middleware

One application of a URISpace might be to make assertions about the
URI of a WSGI request, in order to allow other parts of the application
to use those assertions. :mod:`repoze.urispace` provides a component
which can be used as middleware for this purpose.

To configure the middleware in a :mod:`PasteDeploy` config file::

use = egg:repoze.urispace#urispace
file = %{here)s/urispace.xml

You should then be able to add the middleware to your pipeline::

pipeline =

In your application, you can get to the assertions made by the middleware
using the :func:`repoze.urispace.middleware.getAssertions` API, e.g.:

.. code-block:: python

from repoze.urispace.middleware import getAssertions

def your_app(environ, start_response):
assertions = getAssertions(environ)

Development Notes

Extending :mod:`repoze.urispace`

- Registering custom selectors (TBD)

- Registering operator converters (TBD)

.. toctree::
:maxdepth: 2


.. _URISpace:


.. target-notes::

``repoze.urispace`` Changelog

0.3.1 (2009-07-13)

- 100% unit test coverage.

- Added test / fix for bug in ``repoze.urispace.middleware:make_middleware``.

- Added support for coverage testing.

0.3 (2009-07-06)

- Made the ``getInfo`` method of the middleware class into a separate API.

0.2 (2009-07-04)

- Split out notes on the parser implementation from the main docs about
using the library / middleware.

- Added WSGI middleware which uses a URISpace to make assertions about the
current request's URI, along with an API for extracting those assertions
from the environment.

0.1 (2008-08-30)

- Initial release.

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