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Automatic JSON-based API generator, including a SQL Query Compositor and WSGI Endpoint Router

Project description

Rest-o-matic

Automatic JSON-based API generator, including a SQL Query Compositor and WSGI Endpoint Router

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Warning: This software is in alpha, and API or function signatures may change before full release.

Usage

This package includes three primary components:

Rest-o-matic Endpoints / API Description

This system generates JSON endpoints automatically for tables utilizing the included SQL Query Compositor and WSGI Endpoint router

Create a new set of endpoints with the command:

from restomatic.json_sql_compositor import SQLiteDB
from restomatic.wsgi_endpoint_router import EndpointRouter
from restomatic.endpoint import register_restomatic_endpoint

table_mappers = {
    'table_name': ['column1', 'column2', ...],
    ...
}

db = SQLiteDB(database_filename, table_mappers)

router = EndpointRouter()

register_restomatic_endpoint(router, db, 'table_name', ['GET', 'PUT', 'POST', 'PATCH', 'DELETE'])
...

Any set of methods is valid to allow. Methods not provided will return 405 Method Not Allowed errors if disallow_other_methods is set to True.

GET (returns 200 if found, 404 if no match)

GET one: /table/1

Returns: The requested row as a JSON object (dictionary)

POST (returns 201 for create, 200 for search, on success)

This endpoint creates a new row (or multiple new rows) Also supports a get-like search (but without the limits on uri size/format)

POST one: /table
    body: {...}
or POST many: /table
    body: [{...}, {...}]
or POST-based search: /table/search (returns 200 if found, 404 if no matches)
    body: {'where': [...search criteria...]}
    Optionally, can also include in addition to the where clause:
    'limit': 1, 'offset': 2, 'order_by': ['column_1', {'column': 'column_2', 'direction': 'ASC'}]

The IDs of the created instances are returned as well.

PUT (returns 200 on success)

This endpoint can create or update the given rows

PUT one: /table
    body: {...} (if ID specified, update, otherwise create)
or PUT many: /table
    body: [{...}, {...}] (if ID specified, update, otherwise create)

PATCH (returns 200 on success)

This endpoint updates the given row or based on the given where condition

PATCH one: /table/1
    body: {...}
or PATCH many: /table/where
    body: {'where': [...search criteria...], 'set': {...}}

DELETE (returns 200 on success)

This endpoint deletes the given row or based on the given where condition

DELETE one: /table/1
or DELETE many: /table/where
    body: {'where': [...search criteria...]}

Search Criteria Format

The search criteria is a list which contains two or three elements, the column, an operator to compare, and a value (unless the operator does not need a value.) In addition, search criteria can be combined with 'and' or 'or' by adding all desired comparison statements (two or three element lists) into a list with a dictionary with either 'and' or 'or' as the key. (See example below)

Search Criteria Examples:

['id', 'isnotnull']
['id', 'eq', 1]
['value', 'lt', 1.3]
['id', 'gte', 2]
['description', 'like', '%ABC%']
['value', 'isnull']
['description', 'in', ['test 1', 'test 5']]
['description', 'not_in', ['test 1', 'test 2', 'test 3']]

Operators should be one of:

'eq', '=', '=='
'lt', '<'
'gt', '>'
'lte', '<='
'gte', '>='
'in'
'notin', 'not_in'
'like'
'isnull', 'is_null'
'isnotnull', 'is_not_null'

(Operators in each row are equivalent)

Example Search:

POST /test/search
{'where': ['id', 'lte', 3]}

With an AND statement:

POST /test/search
{
    'where': {
        'and': [
            ['id', 'lte', 3],
            ['id', '>', 1]
        ]
    }
}

SQL Query Compositor / SQLite DB Interface

This provides a convenient and secure way of interacting with a local SQLite DB, allowing one to construct SQL queries through python functions, rather than by string manipulation. It also supports parameter binding, to prevent the most common kind of SQL injection attacks.

To utilize the query compositor, first create a database reference:

db = SQLiteDB('test.db', table_mappers)

This will create the database file (but not the tables) if it does not exist. You can also provide ':memory:' for an in-memory-only sqlite database.

Then one can perform select, update, insert, and delete statements as such:

db.select_all('test').where({'and': [['id', 'gte', 2], ['id', 'lt', 3]]}).one() == (2, 'test 2', 1.5)
db.select_all('test').where(['id', 'isnotnull']).all_mapped() == [{'id': 1, 'description': 'test 1', 'value': 0.5}]
db.select_all('test').count().scalar() == 2
db.select_all('test').where(['id', 'gte', 3]).one_or_none_mapped() is None
db.insert('test', ('description', 'value')).values(('test 2', 1.5))
db.insert_mapped('test', ({'description': 'test 3', 'value': 3.0}, {'description': 'test 4', 'value': 4.4}))
db.delete('test').where(('id', 'eq', 4)).run()
db.update_mapped('test', {'value': 2.0}).where(('id', 'eq', 1)).run()
db.commit() # Required for persisting any transactional changes.

Note that generally the _mapped() forms will return a JSON-like dict, the plain forms will return tuples in either the table order (for select_all) or the columns provided order (if columns are specified). In addition, scalar() will return a the first value only, such as for count queries. In addition, all() functions return lists of results, while one() returns only one (and will raise an error if not found), and one_or_none() returns either one result or None if not found.

Also note that the format used by the filter functions (such as where and order_by) is the same as the API format described above and utilized by the restomatic endpoints.

See the test file for a full treatment on all possible usages and return values/formats.

WSGI Endpoint Router

This provides a lightweight and convenient way of routing multiple endpoints based on request method (GET, PUT, POST, PATCH, DELETE) and the requested uri (such as /index or /table). It also supports both exact-match and prefix-match for uris, and auto-parses/returns formats of plain text, JSON, and form-input, html-output.

It can be instantiated with:

from restomatic.wsgi_endpoint_router import EndpointRouter

router = EndpointRouter(default_in_format='plain', default_out_format='plain')

Optionally specifying the server default formats.

Endpoints are then registered as:

router.register_endpoint(endpt_index, exact='/', method='GET')
router.register_endpoint(endpt_get_json, prefix='/get_json', method='GET', out_format='json')
router.register_endpoint(endpt_patch_json, exact='/patch_json', method='PATCH', in_format='json', out_format='json')

With each endpoint definition specifying first the function to handle the endpoint call, and allowed to specify either an exact or prefix match, an HTTP method to handle, and in and out format to automatically handle.

Endpoint functions have this signature:

def endpoint_index(request):
    ...create data...
    return data

The return value can be either of:

response_data
response_data, status_code
response_data, status_code, additional_headers

Where additional headers can either be in the format:

{'X-Example': 'Header-Value'}

or

[('Content-Type', 'text/plain')]

If the content-type header is provided, it can be used to override the default based on the endpoint definition.

See the test file for a full treatment on all possible usages and return values/formats.

Advanced Usage (Pre-/post-processing, etc.)

In addition, you can add pre- and post- processors, to perform validation of data inputs, and also for custom type handling.

These can be added at database connection time, for example:

db = SQLiteDB('file.db', table_mappers, preprocessors={
    'table_name': {
        'description': description_validator,
        'value': value_preprocessor,
    },
}, postprocessors={
    'table_name': {
        'value': value_postprocessor,
    }
})

Preprocessors can raise exceptions to indicate invalid data, which will then abort the current SQL query or request.

Postprocessors can format the data in other ways (different than the internal data format), and along with matching preprocessors can be used to effectively create custom data types.

The function signature of both pre- and post-processors should be:

def value_processor(value, **context):
    ... code here ...
    return value

Note that the function name and first variable name (for the value) are both not important and can be named whatever is best for your code. The context variable is to capture current and future context information about where this pre or postprocessor is being run from. Currently, the context is set only for preprocessors, and has the 'db' set to the db instance it is running from, and the 'mode' variable set to the current mode, either 'INSERT INTO', 'UPDATE', or 'WHERE' (for searching/getting).

Note that both processor types should return the new processed value to either be inserted into the database (pre-) or returned to the user (post-), which of course can be identical to the inputted value in the case of validators or conditional processors.

Foreign Key Support

Sqlite by default does not enforce foreign keys, to enable support, simply set the flag at database connection time:

db = SQLiteDB('example.db', table_mappers, enable_foreign_key_constraints=True)

This will then throw a sqlite3.IntegrityError if a foreign key constraint is not satisfied.

Install

Requires Python 3.6+ with no other external dependencies. However, a WSGI server will be required, such as uWSGI.

To use uWSGI, you can install it as such:

pip3 install uwsgi

You may need dependent packages (depending upon the system) such as python3-dev and build-essential to install uWSGI, for full instructions see: https://uwsgi-docs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/WSGIquickstart.html

In addition, to run the unit tests, pytest is required, and pytest-cov recommended.

Planned Features

  • Greater database support, including PostgreSQL / MySQL
  • Support for more types, such as enums and booleans
  • Automatic table creation, plus check constraints (for ranges/positive/etc.)
  • Ability to use decorators, authorization, and logging for better security and customization
  • Support for JOINs and possibly foreign key relationship loading
  • Support for Flask (option to be used instead of the provided WSGI router)

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