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Show information about files in different file formats and find gadgets to build rop chains for different architectures.

Project description


You can use ropper to display information about binary files in different file formats
and you can search for gadgets to build rop chains for different architectures (x86/X86_64, ARM/ARM64, MIPS/MIPS64, PowerPC).
For disassembly ropper uses the awesome [Capstone Framework](

NOTE: I recommend to use the dev version of ropper, because bugfixes are earlier available in dev branch.


Install [Capstone]( with PyPi:

$ sudo pip install capstone

Install [filebytes]( with PyPi:

$ sudo pip install filebytes

Optional (not needed to run ropper just to look for gadgets):

Install [Keystone](

You will find the command here, as soon as keystone is released.

Install and execute Ropper

$ python install
$ ropper

You can also install Ropper with pip

$ pip install ropper

If you want, you can use Ropper without installation

$ ./

If you don't want to install filebytes, filebytes is a submodule of the ropper repository. This means you don't need to install filebytes and ropper.

$ git clone
$ cd ropper
$ git submodule init
$ git submodule update
$ ./


usage: [-h] [-v] [--console] [-f <file>] [-r] [-a <arch>]
[--section <section>] [--string [<string>]] [--hex]
[--asm <asm> [H|S|R] [<asm> [H|S|R] ...]] [--disasm <opcode>]
[--disassemble-address <address:length>] [-i] [-e]
[--imagebase] [-c] [-s] [-S] [--imports] [--symbols]
[--set <option>] [--unset <option>] [-I <imagebase>] [-p]
[-j <reg>] [--stack-pivot] [--inst-count <n bytes>]
[--search <regex>] [--quality <quality>] [--opcode <opcode>]
[--instructions <instructions>] [--type <type>] [--detailed]
[--all] [--cfg-only] [--chain <generator>] [-b <badbytes>]
[--nocolor] [--clear-cache]

You can use ropper to display information about binary files in different file formats
and you can search for gadgets to build rop chains for different architectures

supported filetypes:

supported architectures:
x86 [x86]
x86_64 [x86_64]
ARM64 [ARM64]
PowerPC [PPC, PPC64]

available rop chain generators:
execve (execve[=<cmd>], default /bin/sh) [Linux x86, x86_64]
mprotect (mprotect=<address>:<size>) [Linux x86, x86_64]
virtualprotect (virtualprotect=<address iat vp>:<size>) [Windows x86]

optional arguments:
-h, --help show this help message and exit
-v, --version Print version
--console Starts interactive commandline
-f <file>, --file <file>
The file to load
-r, --raw Loads the file as raw file
-a <arch>, --arch <arch>
The architecture of the loaded file
--section <section> The data of the this section should be printed
--string [<string>] Looks for the string <string> in all data sections
--hex Prints the selected sections in a hex format
--asm <asm> [H|S|R] [<asm> [H|S|R] ...]
A string to assemble and a format of the output
(H=HEX, S=STRING, R=RAW, default: H)
--disasm <opcode> Opcode to disassemble (e.g. ffe4, 89c8c3, ...)
--disassemble-address <address:length>
Disassembles instruction at address <address>
(0x12345678:L3). The count of instructions to
disassemble can be specified (0x....:L...)
-i, --info Shows file header [ELF/PE/Mach-O]
-e Shows EntryPoint
--imagebase Shows ImageBase [ELF/PE/Mach-O]
-c, --dllcharacteristics
Shows DllCharacteristics [PE]
-s, --sections Shows file sections [ELF/PE/Mach-O]
-S, --segments Shows file segments [ELF/Mach-O]
--imports Shows imports [ELF/PE]
--symbols Shows symbols [ELF]
--set <option> Sets options. Available options: aslr nx
--unset <option> Unsets options. Available options: aslr nx
-I <imagebase> Uses this imagebase for gadgets
-p, --ppr Searches for 'pop reg; pop reg; ret' instructions
[only x86/x86_64]
-j <reg>, --jmp <reg>
Searches for 'jmp reg' instructions (-j reg[,reg...])
[only x86/x86_64]
--stack-pivot Prints all stack pivot gadgets
--inst-count <n bytes>
Specifies the max count of instructions in a gadget
(default: 6)
--search <regex> Searches for gadgets
--quality <quality> The quality for gadgets which are found by search (1 =
--opcode <opcode> Searchs for opcodes (e.g. ffe4 or ffe? or ff??)
--instructions <instructions>
Searchs for instructions (e.g. "jmp esp", "pop eax;
--type <type> Sets the type of gadgets [rop, jop, sys, all]
(default: all)
--detailed Prints gadgets more detailed
--all Does not remove duplicate gadgets
--cfg-only Filters out gadgets which fail the Microsoft CFG
check. Only for PE files which are compiled with CFG
check enabled (check DllCharachteristics) [PE]
--chain <generator> Generates a ropchain [generator parameter=value[
-b <badbytes>, --badbytes <badbytes>
Set bytes which should not contains in gadgets
--nocolor Disables colored output
--clear-cache Clears the cache

example uses:
./ --file /bin/ls --console

./ --file /bin/ls --info
./ --file /bin/ls --imports
./ --file /bin/ls --sections
./ --file /bin/ls --segments
./ --file /bin/ls --set nx
./ --file /bin/ls --unset nx
./ --file /bin/ls --inst-count 5
./ --file /bin/ls --search "sub eax" --badbytes 000a0d
./ --file /bin/ls --search "sub eax" --detail
./ --file /bin/ls --filter "sub eax"
./ --file /bin/ls --inst-count 5 --filter "sub eax"
./ --file /bin/ls --opcode ffe4
./ --file /bin/ls --opcode ffe?
./ --file /bin/ls --opcode ??e4
./ --file /bin/ls --detailed
./ --file /bin/ls --ppr --nocolor
./ --file /bin/ls --jmp esp,eax
./ --file /bin/ls --type jop
./ --file /bin/ls --chain execve
./ --file /bin/ls --chain "execve cmd=/bin/sh" --badbytes 000a0d
./ --file /bin/ls --chain "mprotect address=0xbfdff000 size=0x21000"
./ --file /bin/ls /lib/ --console

./ --asm "jmp esp"
./ --asm "mov eax, ecx; ret"
./ --disasm ffe4

./ --file /bin/ls --search <searchstring>
? any character
% any string


./ --file /bin/ls --search "mov e?x"
0x000067f1: mov edx, dword ptr [ebp + 0x14]; mov dword ptr [esp], edx; call eax
0x00006d03: mov eax, esi; pop ebx; pop esi; pop edi; pop ebp; ret ;
0x00006d6f: mov ebx, esi; mov esi, dword ptr [esp + 0x18]; add esp, 0x1c; ret ;
0x000076f8: mov eax, dword ptr [eax]; mov byte ptr [eax + edx], 0; add esp, 0x18; pop ebx; ret ;

./ --file /bin/ls --search "mov [%], edx"
0x000067ed: mov dword ptr [esp + 4], edx; mov edx, dword ptr [ebp + 0x14]; mov dword ptr [esp], edx; call eax;
0x00006f4e: mov dword ptr [ecx + 0x14], edx; add esp, 0x2c; pop ebx; pop esi; pop edi; pop ebp; ret ;
0x000084b8: mov dword ptr [eax], edx; ret ;
0x00008d9b: mov dword ptr [eax], edx; add esp, 0x18; pop ebx; ret ;

./ --file /bin/ls --search "mov [%], edx" --quality 1
0x000084b8: mov dword ptr [eax], edx; ret ;; ret ;

Use ropper in Scripts
#!/usr/bin/env python
from ropper import RopperService

# not all options need to be given
options = {'color' : False, # if gadgets are printed, use colored output: default: False
'badbytes': '00', # bad bytes which should not be in addresses or ropchains; default: ''
'all' : False, # Show all gadgets, this means to not remove double gadgets; default: False
'inst_count' : 6, # Number of instructions in a gadget; default: 6
'type' : 'all', # rop, jop, sys, all; default: all
'detailed' : False} # if gadgets are printed, use detailed output; default: False

rs = RopperService(options)

##### change options ######
rs.options.color = True
rs.options.badbytes = '00'
rs.options.badbytes = ''
rs.options.all = True

##### open binaries ######
# it is possible to open multiple files
rs.addFile('ls', bytes=open('test-binaries/ls-x86','rb').read()) # other possiblity
rs.addFile('ls_raw', bytes=open('test-binaries/ls-x86','rb').read(), raw=True, arch='x86')

##### close binaries ######

# Set architecture of a binary, so it is possible to look for gadgets for a different architecture
# It is useful for ARM if you want to look for ARM gadgets or Thumb gadgets
# Or if you opened a raw file
ls = 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='x86')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='x86_64')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='ARM')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='ARMTHUMB')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='ARM64')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='MIPS')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='MIPS64')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='PPC')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='PPC64')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='x86')

##### load gadgets ######

# load gadgets for all opened files

# load gadgets for only one opened file
ls = 'test-binaries/ls-x86'

# change gadget type
rs.options.type = 'jop'

rs.options.type = 'rop'

# change instruction count
rs.options.inst_count = 10

##### print gadgets #######
rs.printGadgetsFor() # print all gadgets

##### Get gadgets ######
gadgets = rs.getFileFor(name=ls).gadgets

##### search pop pop ret ######
pprs = rs.searchPopPopRet(name=ls) # looks for ppr only in 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
pprs = rs.searchPopPopRet() # looks for ppr in all opened files
for file, ppr in pprs.items():
for p in ppr:
print p

##### load jmp reg ######
jmp_regs = rs.searchJmpReg(name=ls, regs=['esp', 'eax']) # looks for jmp reg only in 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
jmp_regs = rs.searchJmpReg(regs=['esp', 'eax'])
jmp_regs = rs.searchJmpReg() # looks for jmp esp in all opened files
for file, jmp_reg in jmp_regs.items():
for j in jmp_reg:
print j

##### search opcode ######
ls = 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
gadgets_dict = rs.searchOpcode(opcode='ffe4', name=ls)
gadgets_dict = rs.searchOpcode(opcode='ffe?')
gadgets_dict = rs.searchOpcode(opcode='??e4')

for file, gadgets in gadgets_dict.items():
for g in gadgets:
print g

##### search instructions ######
ls = 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
for file, gadget in'mov e?x', name=ls):
print file, gadget

for file, gadget in'mov [e?x%]'):
print file, gadget

result_dict = rs.searchdict(search='mov eax')
for file, gadgets in result_dict.items():
print file
for gadget in gadgets:
print gadget

##### assemble instructions ######
hex_string = rs.asm('jmp esp')
print '"jmp esp" assembled to hex string =', hex_string
raw_bytes = rs.asm('jmp esp', format='raw')
print '"jmp esp" assembled to raw bytes =', raw_bytes
string = rs.asm('jmp esp', format='string')
print '"jmp esp" assembled to string =',string
arm_bytes = rs.asm('bx sp', arch='ARM')
print '"bx sp" assembled to hex string =', arm_bytes

##### disassemble bytes #######
arm_instructions = rs.disasm(arm_bytes, arch='ARM')
print arm_bytes, 'disassembled to "%s"' % arm_instructions

# Change the imagebase, this also change the imagebase for all loaded gadgets of this binary
rs.setImageBaseFor(name=ls, imagebase=0x0)

# reset image base
rs.setImageBaseFor(name=ls, imagebase=None)

gadgets = rs.getFileFor(name=ls).gadgets

# gadget address
print hex(gadgets[0].address)

# get instruction bytes of gadget
print bytes(gadgets[0].bytes).encode('hex')

# remove all gadgets containing bad bytes in address
rs.options.badbytes = '000a0d' # gadgets are filtered automatically

Planned features for future versions

- Edit header fields;
- Print more informations;

For any other ideas please contact me

Project page


<img src="" alt="load"></img>

<img src="" alt="x86"></img>

<img src="" alt="arm"></img>

<img src="" alt="mips"></img>

<img src="" alt="ppc"></img>

<img src="" alt="ropchain"></img>

<img src="" alt="header"></img>

<img src="" alt="disassembler"></img>

<img src="" alt="hex"></img>

Project details

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