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An unofficial python client for RQLite

Project description

rqdb

This is an unofficial python client for rqlite, a lightweight distributed relational database based on SQLite.

This client supports SQLite syntax, true parameterized queries, and a calling syntax reminiscent of DB API 2.0.

Furthermore, this client has convenient asynchronous methods which match the underlying rqlite API.

Installation

pip install rqdb

Usage

Synchronous queries:

import rqdb
import secrets

conn = rqdb.connect(['127.0.0.1:4001'])
cursor = conn.cursor()
cursor.execute('CREATE TABLE persons (id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, uid TEXT UNIQUE NOT NULL, name TEXT NOT NULL)')
cursor.execute('CREATE TABLE pets (id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, name TEXT NOT NULL, owner_id INTEGER NOT NULL REFERENCES persons(id) ON DELETE CASCADE)')

# standard execute
cursor.execute('INSERT INTO persons (uid, name) VALUES (?, ?)', (secrets.token_hex(8), 'Jane Doe'))
assert cursor.rows_affected == 1

# The following is stored in a single Raft entry and executed within a transaction.

person_name = 'John Doe'
person_uid = secrets.token_urlsafe(16)
pet_name = 'Fido'
result = cursor.executemany3((
    (
        'INSERT INTO persons (uid, name) VALUES (?, ?)',
        (person_uid, person_name)
    ),
    (
        'INSERT INTO pets (name, owner_id) '
        'SELECT'
        '  ?, persons.id '
        'FROM persons '
        'WHERE uid = ?',
        (pet_name, person_uid)
    )
)).raise_on_error()
assert result[0].rows_affected == 1
assert result[1].rows_affected == 1

Asynchronous queries:

import rqdb
import secrets

async def main():
    async with rqdb.connect_async(['127.0.0.1:4001']) as conn:
        cursor = conn.cursor()

        result = await cursor.execute(
            'INSERT INTO persons (uid, name) VALUES (?, ?)',
            (secrets.token_hex(8), 'Jane Doe')
        )
        assert result.rows_affected == 1

Additional Features

Read Consistency

Selecting read consistency is done at the cursor level, either by passing read_consistency to the cursor constructor (conn.cursor()) or by setting the instance variable read_consistency directly. The available consistencies are strong, weak, and none. You may also indicate the freshness value at the cursor level.

See CONSISTENCY.md for details.

The default consistency is weak.

Foreign Keys

Foreign key support in rqlite is disabled by default, to match sqlite. This is a common source of confusion. It cannot be configured by the client reliably. Foreign key support is enabled as described in FOREIGN_KEY_CONSTRAINTS.md

Nulls

Substituting "NULL" in parametrized queries can be error-prone. In particular, sqlite needs null sent in a very particular way, which the rqlite server has historically not handled properly.

By default, if you attempt to use "None" as a parameter to a query, this package will perform string substition with the value "NULL" in the correct spot. Be careful however - you will still need to handle nulls properly in the query, since "col = NULL" and "col IS NULL" are not the same. In particular, NULL = NULL is NULL, which evaluates to false. One way this could be handled is

name: Optional[str] = None

# never matches a row since name is None, even if the rows name is null
cursor.execute('SELECT * FROM persons WHERE name = ?', (name,))

# works as expected
cursor.execute('SELECT * FROM persons WHERE ((? IS NULL AND name IS NULL) OR name = ?)', (name, name))

Backup

Backups can be initiated using conn.backup(filepath: str, raw: bool = False). The download will be streamed to the given filepath. Both the sql format and a compressed sqlite format are supported.

Logging

By default this will log using the standard logging module. This can be disabled using log=False in the connect call. If logging is desired but just needs to be configured slightly, it can be done as follows:

import rqdb
import logging

conn = rqdb.connect(
    ['127.0.0.1:4001'],
    log=rqdb.LogConfig(
        # Started a SELECT query
        read_start={
            'enabled': True,
            'level': logging.DEBUG,  # alternatively, 'method': logging.debug
        },

        # Started a UPDATE/INSERT query
        write_start={
            'enabled': True,
            'level': logging.DEBUG,
        },

        # Got the response from the database for a SELECT query
        read_response={
            'enabled': True,
            'level': logging.DEBUG,,
            'max_length': 1024,  # limits how much of the response we log
        },

        # Got the response from the database for a UPDATE/INSERT query
        write_response={
            'enabled': True,
            'level': logging.DEBUG,
        },

        # Failed to connect to one of the nodes.
        connect_timeout={
            'enabled': True,
            'level': logging.WARNING,
        },

        # Failed to connect to any node for a query
        hosts_exhausted={
            'enabled': True,
            'level': logging.CRITICAL,
        },

        # The node returned a status code other than 200-299 or
        # a redirect when a redirect is allowed.
        non_ok_response={
            'enabled': True,
            'level': logging.WARNING
        }
    )
)

Limitations

Slow Transactions

The primary limitations is that by the connectionless nature of rqlite, while transactions are possible, the entire transaction must be specified upfront. That is, you cannot open a transaction, perform a query, and then use the result of that query to perform another query before closing the transaction.

This can also be seen as a blessing, as these types of transactions are the most common source of performance issues in traditional applications. They require long-held locks that can easily lead to N^2 performance. The same behavior can almost always be achieved with uids, as shown in the example. The repeated UID lookup causes a consistent overhead, which is highly preferable to the unpredictable negative feedback loop nature of long transactions.

Other Notes

It is often helpful to combine this library with a sql builder such as pypika when manipulating complex queries.

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