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Tools for receiving and interacting with Raspberry Shake UDP data

Project description

Raspberry Shake logo

rsudp

Tools for receiving and interacting with Raspberry Shake UDP data

Written by Ian Nesbitt (@iannesbitt) and Richard Boaz (@ivor)

PyPI PyPI - Downloads GitHub

rsudp is a tool for receiving and interacting with UDP data sent from a Raspberry Shake seismograph. It contains seven main features:

  1. Print - a debugging tool to output raw UDP output to the command line
  2. Writer - a miniSEED writer
  3. Plot - a live-plotting routine to display data as it arrives on the port, with an option to save plots some time after an ALARM message is read from the queue
  4. Forward - forward a data cast to another destination
  5. Alarm - an earthquake/sudden motion alert---complete with bandpass filter capability---configured to send an ALARM message to the queue in the event of a recursive STA/LTA alarm trigger, and optionally run some code
  6. AlertSound - a thread that plays a MP3 audio file when an ALARM message is read from the queue
  7. Tweeter - a thread that tweets when an ALARM message is read from the queue, and optionally can tweet saved plots from the plot module

rsudp is written in Python but requires no coding knowledge to run. Simply follow the instructions to install the software, go to your Shake's web front end, configure a UDP datacast to your computer's local IP address, start rsudp from the command line, and watch the data roll in.

Notes about rsudp

Note: The port you send data to must be open on the receiving end. In Windows, this may mean clicking "allow" on a firewall popup. On most other machines, the port you send UDP data to (8888 or 18001 are common choices) must be open to UDP traffic.

Generally, if you are sending data within a local network, there will be no router firewall to have to pass data through. If you are sending data to another network, you will almost certainly have to forward data through a firewall in order to receive it. You should contact your ISP or network administrator, or consult your router's manual for help setting up port-forwarding.

Note: this program has not been tested to run on the Raspberry Shake itself. Raspberry Shake is not liable nor can we provide support for any strange Shake behavior should you choose to do this. This program is intended to run on a separate RPi or workstation, while the Raspberry Shake is meant to cast data to that computer.

Installation

On Linux & MacOS

This is covered in our installation tutorial video: https://youtu.be/e-kyg55GZyA

A UNIX installer script is available at unix-install-rsudp.sh. This script checks whether or not you have Anaconda installed, then downloads and installs it if need be. This script has been tested on both x86_64 and armv7l architectures (meaning that it can run on your home computer or a Raspberry Pi) and will download the appropriate Anaconda distribution, set up a virtual Python environment, and leave you ready to run the program. To install using this method:

$ bash unix-install-rsudp.sh

Note: the installer script will pause partway through to ask if you would like to make the conda command executable by default. This is done by appending the line below to your ~/.bashrc file. This is generally harmless, but if you have a specific objection to it, hitting any key other than "y" will cause the script to skip this step. You will have to manually run the conda executable in this case, however. If you choose to do it manually later, the line appended to the end of ~/.bashrc is the following (architecture-dependent):

On x86 systems:

. $HOME/miniconda3/etc/profile.d/conda.sh

or on ARMv7 architecture with Raspbian OS:

. $HOME/berryconda3/etc/profile.d/conda.sh

Note: You can run uname -m to check your computer's architecture.

where $HOME is the home directory of the current user.

Updating

Unix users can update the repository to the latest development version by running the following commands:

cd /rsudp/location
git pull
bash unix-install-rsudp.sh

The update script will replace the previous default settings file (~/.config/rsudp/rsudp_settings.json) with a new settings file. If you use the default settings file, you will need to copy some old values over to the new file. The reason for this is that the default settings file may change (i.e. add or modify sections of values) and thus must be rewritten when updating. On Linux, backed up settings files will be named ~/.config/rsudp/rsudp_settings.json.~x~, where x is an integer. On Mac, the backed up file will simply be named ~/.config/rsudp/rsudp_settings.json~. To back up the settings file yourself to a location that will not be overwritten, you can do a command similar to the following:

cp ~/.config/rsudp/rsudp_settings.json ~/.config/rsudp/rsudp_settings.json.bak

On Windows

  1. Download and install Anaconda or Miniconda.
  2. Open an Anaconda Prompt.
  3. Execute the following lines of code:
conda config --append channels conda-forge
conda create -n rsudp python=3 matplotlib=3.1.1 numpy=1.16.4 future scipy lxml sqlalchemy obspy
conda activate rsudp
pip install rsudp

Using this software

Starting rsudp on Unix

Unix users may prefer the easy-to-use start script available in the git repository:

bash unix-start-rsudp.sh

Starting on Windows, or manually on Unix

This start method is covered in our tutorial video here: https://youtu.be/HA9k3CzmgLI

  1. First, to activate the conda environment, type conda activate rsudp.

  2. Next, configure a datacast stream (formerly known as a UDP stream) to forward data to an open port on the computer where this program is running. By default this port is 8888.

  3. The UNIX installer will create a settings file in $HOME/.config/rsudp/rsudp_settings.json. (Windows users will need to type rs-client -d default to dump the settings to a file the first time they run this program.) Change the settings in this file to control how the client operates.

To dump the default settings to a different location of your choosing, type rs-client -d rsudp_settings.json. (As stated above, to rebuild and overwrite the default settings file in $HOME/.config/rsudp/rsudp_settings.json, type rs-client -d default)

  1. After modifying the settings file to your liking, type rs-client to use the settings file at $HOME/.config/rsudp/rsudp_settings.json, or rs-client -s rsudp_settings.json to run with a different settings file.

Note: This library can only handle incoming data from one Shake per port. If for some reason more than one Shake is sending data to the port, the software will only process data coming from the IP of the first Shake it sees sending data. All data coming from any other Shake(s) will be ignored.

Settings

By default, the settings are as follows:

{
"settings": {
    "port": 8888,
    "station": "Z0000",
    "output_dir": "@@DIR@@",
    "debug": true},
"printdata": {
    "enabled": false},
"write": {
    "enabled": false,
    "channels": ["all"]},
"plot": {
    "enabled": true,
    "duration": 30,
    "spectrogram": true,
    "fullscreen": false,
    "kiosk": false,
    "eq_screenshots": false,
    "channels": ["HZ", "HDF"],
    "deconvolve": false,
    "units": "CHAN"},
"forward": {
    "enabled": false,
    "address": "192.168.1.254",
    "port": 8888,
    "channels": ["all"]},
"alert": {
    "enabled": true,
    "highpass": 0,
    "lowpass": 50,
    "deconvolve": false,
    "units": "VEL",
    "sta": 6,
    "lta": 30,
    "threshold": 1.7,
    "reset": 1.6,
    "exec": "eqAlert",
    "channel": "HZ",
    "win_override": false},
"alertsound": {
    "enabled": false,
    "mp3file": "doorbell"},
"tweets": {
    "enabled": false,
    "tweet_images": true,
    "api_key": "n/a",
    "api_secret": "n/a",
    "access_token": "n/a",
    "access_secret": "n/a"}
}

Modules

  • The settings portion of the settings file contains some basic items: "port", "station", "output_dir", and "debug". Change "port" if you are receiving the data at a different port than 8888. If you would like to set your station name, change "station". "output_dir" will contain folders for miniSEED data and plot screenshots, which are explained in the relevant sections (write and plot) below. The directory specified here will be created if it doesn't already exist. "debug" controls how much text is sent to the command line STDOUT (even if this is false, output will always be sent to a log at /tmp/rsudp/rsudp.log).

  • printdata controls the data output module, which simply prints Shake data packets to stdout as it receives them. Change "enabled" to true to activate.

  • write controls a very simple STEIM2 miniSEED writer. If "enabled" is true, seismic data is appended to a miniSEED file with a descriptive name in the data directory inside of "output_dir" every 10 seconds. By default, "all" channels will be written to their own files. You can change which channels are written by changing this to, for example, ["EHZ", "ENZ"], which will write the vertical geophone and accelerometer channels from RS4D output.

  • plot controls the thread containing the GUI plotting algorithm. This module can plot seismogram data from a list of 1-4 Shake channels, and calculate and display a spectrogram beneath each. By default the "duration" in seconds is 30. The plot will refresh at most once per second, but slower processors may take longer. The longer the duration, the more processor power it will take to refresh the plot, especially when the spectrogram is enabled. To disable the spectrogram, set "spectrogram" to false in the settings file. To put the plot into fullscreen window mode, set "fullscreen" to true. To put the plot into kiosk mode, set "kiosk" to true (NB: kiosk mode will force the plot to fill the entire screen. To exit, press Ctrl+W or Alt+Tab (Command+Tab on Mac OS) to bring up a window switcher). On a Raspberry Pi 3B+, plotting 600 seconds of data and a spectrogram from one channel, the update frequency is approximately once every 5 seconds, but more powerful processors will be able to accommodate a higher refresh speed. Because the plot module is queue-based, it will not drop any packets received, no matter the processor. Dropped packets (if you experience them) are most likely a sign of network issues where the missing data never actually arrives at the receiving machine.

    By default, the "channels" field is ["HZ", "HDF"]. This will resolve to at least one channel of any Shake input. "HZ" will match either "SHZ" or "EHZ" depending on your Shake digitizer model, and "HDF" will match the pressure transducer channel on a Raspberry Boom or Shake & Boom. If one of the channels in the list doesn't exist in the data sent to the port, it will be ignored.

    The program will use the Raspberry Shake FDSN service to search for an inventory response file for the Shake you specify in the "station" field. If it successfully finds an inventory, setting "deconvolve" to true will deconvolve the channels plotted to either "ACC" (acceleration in m/s^2), "VEL" (velocity in m/s), or "DISP" (displacement in m). The default is "CHAN" which lets the program deconvolve the channel to its native units (acceleration for accelerometers, and velocity for geophones). This means that the Shake must both have the 4.5 Hz geophone distributed by RS, and be forwarding data to the Shake server, in order to deconvolve successfully. The Raspberry Boom will always display in counts of Voltage, i.e., not a deconvolved unit.

    If the alert module is enabled, setting "eq_screenshots" to true will result in screenshots being saved whenever there is an ALARM is internally forwarded for further processing (see alert section below). The script will save one PNG figure per alert to the screenshots directory inside of "output_dir" when the leading edge of the quake is about 60% of the way across the plot window. This will only occur when the alarm gets triggered, however, so make sure to test your alert settings thoroughly.

  • forward controls a UDP datacast forwarding module. You can forward a list of channels from a datacast to the "address" and "port" specified, just like you would from the Shake's web front end. By default, ["all"] channels are forwarded.

  • alert controls the alert module (please see Disclaimer below). The alert module is a fast recursive STA/LTA sudden motion detector that utilizes obspy's recursive_sta_lta() function. STA/LTA algorithms calculate a ratio of the short term average of station noise to the long term average. The data can be highpass, lowpass, or bandpass filtered by changing the "highpass" and "lowpass" parameters from their defaults (0 and 50 respectively). By default, the alert will be calculated on raw count data from the vertical geophone channel (either "SHZ" or "EHZ"). It will throw an error if there is no Z channel available (i.e. if you have a Raspberry Boom with no geophone). If you have a Boom and still would like to run this module, change the default channel "HZ" to "HDF".

    Like in the plot module, the alert module deconvolves the instrument response if a response file exists for your "station" on the Raspberry Shake FDSN server. Same as above, if the response file exists, setting "deconvolve" to true will cause the alert function to calculate the STA/LTA ratio on deconvolved data (again "ACC", "VEL", or "DISP").

    If the STA/LTA ratio goes above a certain value (defined by "threshold"), then the module will generate an ALARM "event packet", to be distributed to every consumer module. In addition to sending ALARM packets, alert can also run a function passed to it (see the explanation of exec() in the paragraph below). By default, this function is rsudp.client.eqAlert() which, in this version, merely outputs some text to the logger. To play a sound, see the alarmsound module. When the ratio goes back below the "reset" value, the alarm is reset.

    You can change the "exec" field and supply a path to executable Python code to run with the exec() function. Be very careful when using the exec() function, as it is known to have problems. Notably, it does not check the passed code for errors prior to running. Additionally, if the code takes too long to execute, you could end up losing data packets, so keep it simple (sending a message or a tweet, which should either succeed or time out in a few seconds, is really the intended purpose). In testing, we were able to run scripts with execution times of 30 seconds without losing any data packets. Theoretically you could run code that takes longer to process than that, but the issue is that the longer it takes the function to process code, the longer the module will go without processing data from the queue (the queue can hold up to 2048 packets, which for a RS4D works out to 128 seconds of data). Another way of saying this is: you will miss whatever subsequent earthquakes occur while exec() is running. A much better way to run your own code would be to fork this repository and create a new thread that sits idle until it sees an ALARM data packet on the queue. That way, the alert module can process more queue packets simultaneously to the execution of alarm-state code.

    If you are running Windows and have code you want to pass to the exec() feature, Python requires that your newline characters are in the UNIX style (\n), not the standard Windows style (\r\n). To convert, follow the instructions in one of the answers to this stackoverflow question. If you're not sure what this means, please read about newline/line ending characters here. If you are certain that your code file has no Windows newlines, you can set "win_override" to true.

  • alarmsound if "enabled" is true and you have either ffmpeg or libav installed, this module plays an MP3 sound every time it receives an ALARM queue message. For details on installation of these dependencies, see this page).

    The software will install several small MP3 files. The "mp3file" is "doorbell" (two doorbell chimes) by default, but there are a few more aggressive alert sounds, including: a three-beep sound "beeps", a sequence of sonar pings "sonar", and a continuous alarm beeping for 5 seconds, "alarm". You can also point the "mp3file" field to an MP3 file somewhere in your filesystem. For example, if your username was pi and you had a file called earthquake.mp3 in your Downloads folder, you would specify "mp3file": "/home/pi/Downloads/earthquake.mp3". The program will throw an error if it can't find (or load) the specified MP3 file. It will also alert you if the software dependencies for playback are not installed.

  • tweets if "enabled" is true, and all API keys have been generated and are correctly entered, then this module will use the Twitter API to create tweets when an ALARM message arrives on the queue. If "tweet_images" is true, then the module will also tweet a saved image of the event, if "eq_screenshots" is set to true in the "plot" module. Note that in order for this to work, the user has to create 1) a twitter profile for automatically tweeting alerts (or use an existing account), 2) a Twitter developer account, 3) a Twitter API app inside said developer account, and 4) consumer keys and API keys for that app. Once you have generated the four API keys required for authentication (consumer API key, consumer API secret, access token, and access token secret), you may enter them into your settings file in the appropriate fields: "api_key", "api_secret", "access_token", and "access_secret".

Disclaimer

NOTE: It is extremely important that you do not rely on this code to save life or property. Raspberry Shake is not liable for earthquake detection of false positives, false negatives, errors running the Alert module, or any other part of this library; it is meant for hobby and non-professional notification use only. If you need professional software meant to provide a warning intended to save life or property please contact Raspberry Shake directly or look elsewhere. See sections 16 and 16b of the License for further details.

pydub dependencies

If you would like to play sounds when the STA/LTA trigger activates, you will need to take the following installation steps beforehand:

  1. Install the release version of this software.
  2. Install the dependencies for pydub which are available across multiple platforms using most package managers. (Linux users can simply type sudo apt install ffmpeg, and MacOS users with Homebrew can type brew install ffmpeg). Windows users, however, will have to follow more detailed instructions.
  3. Change "alertsound" from false to true in the settings file. (~/.config/rsudp/rsudp_settings.json on Mac and Linux, C:\Program Files\RSHAKE\rsudp\rsudp_settings.json on Windows)
  4. Start the rsudp client by typing rs-client or by pointing it at an existing settings file rs-client -s /path/to/settings.json
  5. Wait for the trigger to warm up, then stomp, jump, or Shake to hear the sound!

Plot + Alarm example

Detected event

This plot of a M 3.0 earthquake 50 km away was saved automatically without user intervention. Tired of searching through old data to find earthquakes? With a properly tuned alarm threshold and the eq_screenshots setting, rsudp can save images of alarm events for you to view and share later. The plot above was created with the following settings:

{
"settings": {
    "port": 8888,
    "station": "R24FA",
    "output_dir": "/home/pi/rsudp",
    "debug": true},
"printdata": {
    "enabled": false},
"write": {
    "enabled": false,
    "channels": "all"},
"plot": {
    "enabled": true,
    "duration": 300,
    "spectrogram": true,
    "fullscreen": true,
    "kiosk": false,
    "eq_screenshots": true,
    "channels": ["HZ", "HDF"],
    "deconvolve": true,
    "units": "ACC"},
"forward": {
    "enabled": false,
    "address": "127.0.0.1",
    "port": 13000,
    "channels": ["EHZ"]},
"alert": {
    "enabled": true,
    "highpass": 0,
    "lowpass": 8,
    "deconvolve": false,
    "units": "ACC",
    "sta": 6,
    "lta": 30,
    "threshold": 1.581,
    "reset": 1.574,
    "exec": "eqAlert",
    "channel": "HZ",
    "win_override": false},
"alertsound": {
    "enabled": true,
    "mp3file": "doorbell"},
"tweets": {
    "enabled": false,
    "tweet_images": true,
    "api_key": "n/a",
    "api_secret": "n/a",
    "access_token": "n/a",
    "access_secret": "n/a"}
}

One note to consider here is that the "reset" setting is nearly as important to earthquake detection as "threshold". If "reset" is set too high, for example, you may end up with two trigger events: one for the P-wave and one for the S-wave. The taper on the trailing side of a big quake typically results in STA/LTA ratios well below 1, but setting it too low may result in the trigger not shutting off properly. Because each seismograph installation site is different, and no two earthquakes are exactly the same, there is no "right answer" for what to set these parameters to. Experimenting with the parameters is key!

Contributing

Contributions to this project are more than welcome. If you find ways to improve the efficiency of the library or the modules that use it, or come up with cool new modules to share with the community, we are eager to include them (provided, of course, that they are stable and achieve a clearly stated goal).

Since the Producer function passes an ALARM queue message when it sees Alert.alarm=True, other modules can be easily added and programmed to do something when they see this message. This is to help make the addition of other action-based modules straightforward.

Some ideas for improvements are:

  • a way to plot trigger-on and trigger-off events using osbpy's trigger_onset (example here)
  • GPIO pin interactions (lights, motor control, buzzers, etc.)
  • a more efficient plotting routine
  • a way to optionally run the plot module with the Agg backend in matplotlib, which would allow the creation of screenshots without the need for a plot window to appear
  • Windows batch scripts similar to the provided UNIX ones

Bugs

This software, like most, contains bugs and errors. If you find a bug, please create a GitHub issue. Be sure to describe the problem clearly, attach your logs (/tmp/rsudp/rsudp.log) and/or copy/paste command line output in triple backticks ``` like this ``` to format it as code.

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