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An implementation of the SCRAM protocol.

Project description

A Python implementation of the SCRAM authentication protocol. Scramp supports the following mechanisms:

  • SCRAM-SHA-1

  • SCRAM-SHA-1-PLUS

  • SCRAM-SHA-256

  • SCRAM-SHA-256-PLUS

  • SCRAM-SHA-512

  • SCRAM-SHA-512-PLUS

  • SCRAM-SHA3-512

  • SCRAM-SHA3-512-PLUS

Installation

  • Create a virtual environment: python3 -m venv venv

  • Activate the virtual environment: source venv/bin/activate

  • Install: pip install scramp

Examples

Client and Server

Here’s an example using both the client and the server. It’s a bit contrived as normally you’d be using either the client or server on its own.

>>> from scramp import ScramClient, ScramMechanism
>>>
>>> USERNAME = 'user'
>>> PASSWORD = 'pencil'
>>> MECHANISMS = ['SCRAM-SHA-256']
>>>
>>>
>>> # Choose a mechanism for our server
>>> m = ScramMechanism()  # Default is SCRAM-SHA-256
>>>
>>> # On the server side we create the authentication information for each user
>>> # and store it in an authentication database. We'll use a dict:
>>> db = {}
>>>
>>> salt, stored_key, server_key, iteration_count = m.make_auth_info(PASSWORD)
>>>
>>> db[USERNAME] = salt, stored_key, server_key, iteration_count
>>>
>>> # Define your own function for retrieving the authentication information
>>> # from the database given a username
>>>
>>> def auth_fn(username):
...     return db[username]
>>>
>>> # Make the SCRAM server
>>> s = m.make_server(auth_fn)
>>>
>>> # Now set up the client and carry out authentication with the server
>>> c = ScramClient(MECHANISMS, USERNAME, PASSWORD)
>>> cfirst = c.get_client_first()
>>>
>>> s.set_client_first(cfirst)
>>> sfirst = s.get_server_first()
>>>
>>> c.set_server_first(sfirst)
>>> cfinal = c.get_client_final()
>>>
>>> s.set_client_final(cfinal)
>>> sfinal = s.get_server_final()
>>>
>>> c.set_server_final(sfinal)
>>>
>>> # If it all runs through without raising an exception, the authentication
>>> # has succeeded

Client only

Here’s an example using just the client. The client nonce is specified in order to give a reproducible example, but in production you’d omit the c_nonce parameter and let ScramClient generate a client nonce:

>>> from scramp import ScramClient
>>>
>>> USERNAME = 'user'
>>> PASSWORD = 'pencil'
>>> C_NONCE = 'rOprNGfwEbeRWgbNEkqO'
>>> MECHANISMS = ['SCRAM-SHA-256']
>>>
>>> # Normally the c_nonce would be omitted, in which case ScramClient will
>>> # generate the nonce itself.
>>>
>>> c = ScramClient(MECHANISMS, USERNAME, PASSWORD, c_nonce=C_NONCE)
>>>
>>> # Get the client first message and send it to the server
>>> cfirst = c.get_client_first()
>>> print(cfirst)
n,,n=user,r=rOprNGfwEbeRWgbNEkqO
>>>
>>> # Set the first message from the server
>>> c.set_server_first(
...     'r=rOprNGfwEbeRWgbNEkqO%hvYDpWUa2RaTCAfuxFIlj)hNlF$k0,'
...     's=W22ZaJ0SNY7soEsUEjb6gQ==,i=4096')
>>>
>>> # Get the client final message and send it to the server
>>> cfinal = c.get_client_final()
>>> print(cfinal)
c=biws,r=rOprNGfwEbeRWgbNEkqO%hvYDpWUa2RaTCAfuxFIlj)hNlF$k0,p=dHzbZapWIk4jUhN+Ute9ytag9zjfMHgsqmmiz7AndVQ=
>>>
>>> # Set the final message from the server
>>> c.set_server_final('v=6rriTRBi23WpRR/wtup+mMhUZUn/dB5nLTJRsjl95G4=')
>>>
>>> # If it all runs through without raising an exception, the authentication
>>> # has succeeded

Server only

Here’s an example using just the server. The server nonce and salt is specified in order to give a reproducible example, but in production you’d omit the s_nonce and salt parameters and let Scramp generate them:

>>> from scramp import ScramMechanism
>>>
>>> USERNAME = 'user'
>>> PASSWORD = 'pencil'
>>> S_NONCE = '%hvYDpWUa2RaTCAfuxFIlj)hNlF$k0'
>>> SALT = b'[m\x99h\x9d\x125\x8e\xec\xa0K\x14\x126\xfa\x81'
>>>
>>> db = {}
>>>
>>> m = ScramMechanism()
>>>
>>> salt, stored_key, server_key, iteration_count = m.make_auth_info(
...     PASSWORD, salt=SALT)
>>>
>>> db[USERNAME] = salt, stored_key, server_key, iteration_count
>>>
>>> # Define your own function for getting a password given a username
>>> def auth_fn(username):
...     return db[username]
>>>
>>> # Normally the s_nonce parameter would be omitted, in which case the
>>> # server will generate the nonce itself.
>>>
>>> s = m.make_server(auth_fn, s_nonce=S_NONCE)
>>>
>>> # Set the first message from the client
>>> s.set_client_first('n,,n=user,r=rOprNGfwEbeRWgbNEkqO')
>>>
>>> # Get the first server message, and send it to the client
>>> sfirst = s.get_server_first()
>>> print(sfirst)
r=rOprNGfwEbeRWgbNEkqO%hvYDpWUa2RaTCAfuxFIlj)hNlF$k0,s=W22ZaJ0SNY7soEsUEjb6gQ==,i=4096
>>>
>>> # Set the final message from the client
>>> s.set_client_final(
...     'c=biws,r=rOprNGfwEbeRWgbNEkqO%hvYDpWUa2RaTCAfuxFIlj)hNlF$k0,'
...     'p=dHzbZapWIk4jUhN+Ute9ytag9zjfMHgsqmmiz7AndVQ=')
>>>
>>> # Get the final server message and send it to the client
>>> sfinal = s.get_server_final()
>>> print(sfinal)
v=6rriTRBi23WpRR/wtup+mMhUZUn/dB5nLTJRsjl95G4=
>>>
>>> # If it all runs through without raising an exception, the authentication
>>> # has succeeded

Server only with passlib

Here’s an example using just the server and using the passlib hashing library. The server nonce and salt is specified in order to give a reproducible example, but in production you’d omit the s_nonce and salt parameters and let Scramp generate them:

>>> from scramp import ScramMechanism
>>> from passlib.hash import scram
>>>
>>> USERNAME = 'user'
>>> PASSWORD = 'pencil'
>>> S_NONCE = '%hvYDpWUa2RaTCAfuxFIlj)hNlF$k0'
>>> SALT = b'[m\x99h\x9d\x125\x8e\xec\xa0K\x14\x126\xfa\x81'
>>> ITERATION_COUNT = 4096
>>>
>>> db = {}
>>> hash = scram.using(salt=SALT, rounds=ITERATION_COUNT).hash(PASSWORD)
>>>
>>> salt, iteration_count, digest = scram.extract_digest_info(hash, 'sha-256')
>>>
>>> stored_key, server_key = m.make_stored_server_keys(digest)
>>>
>>> db[USERNAME] = salt, stored_key, server_key, iteration_count
>>>
>>> # Define your own function for getting a password given a username
>>> def auth_fn(username):
...     return db[username]
>>>
>>> # Normally the s_nonce parameter would be omitted, in which case the
>>> # server will generate the nonce itself.
>>>
>>> m = ScramMechanism()
>>> s = m.make_server(auth_fn, s_nonce=S_NONCE)
>>>
>>> # Set the first message from the client
>>> s.set_client_first('n,,n=user,r=rOprNGfwEbeRWgbNEkqO')
>>>
>>> # Get the first server message, and send it to the client
>>> sfirst = s.get_server_first()
>>> print(sfirst)
r=rOprNGfwEbeRWgbNEkqO%hvYDpWUa2RaTCAfuxFIlj)hNlF$k0,s=W22ZaJ0SNY7soEsUEjb6gQ==,i=4096
>>>
>>> # Set the final message from the client
>>> s.set_client_final(
...     'c=biws,r=rOprNGfwEbeRWgbNEkqO%hvYDpWUa2RaTCAfuxFIlj)hNlF$k0,'
...     'p=dHzbZapWIk4jUhN+Ute9ytag9zjfMHgsqmmiz7AndVQ=')
>>>
>>> # Get the final server message and send it to the client
>>> sfinal = s.get_server_final()
>>> print(sfinal)
v=6rriTRBi23WpRR/wtup+mMhUZUn/dB5nLTJRsjl95G4=
>>>
>>> # If it all runs through without raising an exception, the authentication
>>> # has succeeded

Server Error

Here’s an example of when setting a message from the client causes an error. The server nonce and salt is specified in order to give a reproducible example, but in production you’d omit the s_nonce and salt parameters and let Scramp generate them:

>>> from scramp import ScramException, ScramMechanism
>>>
>>> USERNAME = 'user'
>>> PASSWORD = 'pencil'
>>> S_NONCE = '%hvYDpWUa2RaTCAfuxFIlj)hNlF$k0'
>>> SALT = b'[m\x99h\x9d\x125\x8e\xec\xa0K\x14\x126\xfa\x81'
>>>
>>> db = {}
>>>
>>> m = ScramMechanism()
>>>
>>> salt, stored_key, server_key, iteration_count = m.make_auth_info(
...     PASSWORD, salt=SALT)
>>>
>>> db[USERNAME] = salt, stored_key, server_key, iteration_count
>>>
>>> # Define your own function for getting a password given a username
>>> def auth_fn(username):
...     return db[username]
>>>
>>> # Normally the s_nonce parameter would be omitted, in which case the
>>> # server will generate the nonce itself.
>>>
>>> s = m.make_server(auth_fn, s_nonce=S_NONCE)
>>>
>>> try:
...     # Set the first message from the client
...     s.set_client_first('p=tls-unique,,n=user,r=rOprNGfwEbeRWgbNEkqO')
... except ScramException as e:
...     print(e)
...     # Get the final server message and send it to the client
...     sfinal = s.get_server_final()
...     print(sfinal)
Received GS2 flag 'p' which indicates that the client requires channel binding, but the server does not. channel-binding-not-supported
e=channel-binding-not-supported

Standards

RFC 5802

Describes SCRAM.

RFC 7677

Registers SCRAM-SHA-256 and SCRAM-SHA-256-PLUS.

draft-melnikov-scram-sha-512-02

Registers SCRAM-SHA-512 and SCRAM-SHA-512-PLUS.

draft-melnikov-scram-sha3-512

Registers SCRAM-SHA3-512 and SCRAM-SHA3-512-PLUS.

RFC 5929

Channel Bindings for TLS.

draft-ietf-kitten-tls-channel-bindings-for-tls13

Defines the tls-exporter channel binding, which is not yet supported by Scramp.

API Docs

scramp.MECHANISMS

A tuple of the supported mechanism names.

scramp.ScramClient

ScramClient(mechanisms, username, password, channel_binding=None, c_nonce=None)

Constructor of the ScramClient class, with the following parameters:

mechanisms

A list or tuple of mechanism names. ScramClient will choose the most secure. If cbind_data is None, the ‘-PLUS’ variants will be filtered out first. The chosen mechanism is available as the property mechanism_name.

username

password

channel_binding

Providing a value for this parameter allows channel binding to be used (ie. it lets you use mechanisms ending in ‘-PLUS’). The value for channel_binding is a tuple consisting of the channel binding name and the channel binding data. For example, if the channel binding name is tls-unique, the channel_binding parameter would be ('tls-unique', data), where data is obtained by calling SSLSocket.get_channel_binding(). The convenience function scramp.make_channel_binding() can be used to create a channel binding tuple.

c_nonce

The client nonce. It’s sometimes useful to set this when testing / debugging, but in production this should be omitted, in which case ScramClient will generate a client nonce.

The ScramClient object has the following methods and properties:

get_client_first()

Get the client first message.

set_server_first(message)

Set the first message from the server.

get_client_final()

Get the final client message.

set_server_final(message)

Set the final message from the server.

mechanism_name

The mechanism chosen from the list given in the constructor.

scramp.ScramMechanism

ScramMechanism(mechanism='SCRAM-SHA-256')

Constructor of the ScramMechanism class, with the following parameter:

mechanism

The SCRAM mechanism to use.

The ScramMechanism object has the following methods and properties:

make_auth_info(password, iteration_count=None, salt=None)

returns the tuple (salt, stored_key, server_key, iteration_count) which is stored in the authentication database on the server side. It has the following parameters:

password

The user’s password as a str.

iteration_count

The rounds as an int. If None then use the minimum associated with the mechanism.

salt

It’s sometimes useful to set this binary parameter when testing / debugging, but in production this should be omitted, in which case a salt will be generated.

make_server(auth_fn, channel_binding=None, s_nonce=None)

returns a ScramServer object. It takes the following parameters:

auth_fn

This is a function provided by the programmer that has one parameter, a username of type str and returns returns the tuple (salt, stored_key, server_key, iteration_count). Where salt, stored_key and server_key are of a binary type, and iteration_count is an int.

channel_binding

Providing a value for this parameter allows channel binding to be used (ie. it lets you use mechanisms ending in -PLUS). The value for channel_binding is a tuple consisting of the channel binding name and the channel binding data. For example, if the channel binding name is ‘tls-unique’, the channel_binding parameter would be ('tls-unique', data), where data is obtained by calling SSLSocket.get_channel_binding(). The convenience function scramp.make_channel_binding() can be used to create a channel binding tuple. If channel_binding is provided and the mechanism isn’t a -PLUS variant, then the server will negotiate with the client to use the -PLUS variant if the client supports it, or otherwise to use the mechanism without channel binding.

s_nonce

The server nonce as a str. It’s sometimes useful to set this when testing / debugging, but in production this should be omitted, in which case ScramServer will generate a server nonce.

make_stored_server_keys(salted_password)

returns (stored_key, server_key) tuple of bytes objects given a salted password. This is useful if you want to use a separate hashing implementation from the one provided by Scramp. It takes the following parameter:

salted_password

A binary object representing the hashed password.

iteration_count

The minimum iteration count recommended for this mechanism.

scramp.ScramServer

The ScramServer object has the following methods:

set_client_first(message)

Set the first message from the client.

get_server_first()

Get the server first message.

set_client_final(message)

Set the final client message.

get_server_final()

Get the server final message.

scramp.make_channel_binding()

make_channel_binding(name, ssl_socket)

A helper function that makes a channel_binding tuple when given a channel binding name and an SSL socket. The parameters are:

name

A channel binding name such as ‘tls-unique’ or ‘tls-server-end-point’.

ssl_socket

An instance of ssl.SSLSocket.

README.rst

This file is written in the reStructuredText format. To generate an HTML page from it, do:

  • Activate the virtual environment: source venv/bin/activate

  • Install Sphinx: pip install Sphinx

  • Run rst2html.py: rst2html.py README.rst README.html

Testing

  • Activate the virtual environment: source venv/bin/activate

  • Install tox: pip install tox

  • Run tox: tox

Doing A Release Of Scramp

Run tox to make sure all tests pass, then update the release notes, then do:

git tag -a x.y.z -m "version x.y.z"
rm -r dist
python -m build
twine upload --sign dist/*

Release Notes

Version 1.4.3, 2022-10-26

  • The client now sends a gs2-cbind-flag of ‘y’ if the client supports channel binding, but thinks the server does not.

Version 1.4.2, 2022-10-22

  • Switch to using the MIT-0 licence https://choosealicense.com/licenses/mit-0/

  • When creating a ScramClient, allow non -PLUS variants, even if a channel_binding parameter is provided. Previously this would raise and exception.

Version 1.4.1, 2021-08-25

  • When using make_channel_binding() to create a tls-server-end-point channel binding, support certificates with hash algorithm of sha512.

Version 1.4.0, 2021-03-28

  • Raise an exception if the client receives an error from the server.

Version 1.3.0, 2021-03-28

  • As the specification allows, server errors are now sent to the client in the server_final message, an exception is still thrown as before.

Version 1.2.2, 2021-02-13

  • Fix bug in generating the AuthMessage. It was incorrect when channel binding was used. So now Scramp supports channel binding.

Version 1.2.1, 2021-02-07

  • Add support for channel binding.

  • Add support for SCRAM-SHA-512 and SCRAM-SHA3-512 and their channel binding variants.

Version 1.2.0, 2020-05-30

  • This is a backwardly incompatible change on the server side, the client side will work as before. The idea of this change is to make it possible to have an authentication database. That is, the authentication information can be stored, and then retrieved when needed to authenticate the user.

  • In addition, it’s now possible on the server side to use a third party hashing library such as passlib as the hashing implementation.

Version 1.1.1, 2020-03-28

  • Add the README and LICENCE to the distribution.

Version 1.1.0, 2019-02-24

  • Add support for the SCRAM-SHA-1 mechanism.

Version 1.0.0, 2019-02-17

  • Implement the server side as well as the client side.

Version 0.0.0, 2019-02-10

  • Copied SCRAM implementation from pg8000. The idea is to make it a general SCRAM implemtation. Credit to the Scrampy project which I read through to help with this project. Also credit to the passlib project from which I copied the saslprep function.

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