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Compress and decompress seismic data

Project description


Python library to convert SEG-Y files to compressed cubes and retrieve arbitrary sub-volumes from these, fast.


Reading whole SEG-Y volumes to retrieve, for example, a single time-slice is wasteful.

Copying whole SEG-Y files uncompressed over networks is also wasteful.

This library addresses both issues by implementing the seismic-zfp (.SZ) format. This format is based on ZFP compression from Peter Lindstrom's paper, using the Python wrapper developed by Navjot Kukreja.

ZFP compression enables smoothly varying d-dimensional data in 4d subvolumes to be compressed at a fixed bitrate. The 32-bit floating point values in 4x4x4 units of a 3D post-stack SEG-Y file are well suited to this scheme.

Decomposing an appropriately padded 3D seismic volume into groups of these units which exactly fill one 4KB disk block, compressing these groups, and writing them sequentially to disk yields a file with the following properties:

  • Compression ratio of 2n:1 compression, typically a bitrate of 4 works well, implying a ratio of 8:1
  • The location of any seismic sample is known
  • Arbitrary subvolumes can be read with minimal redundant I/O, for example:
    • Padding IL/XL dimensions with 4, and the z-dimension depending on bitrate
    • Padding IL/XL dimensions with 64 and the z-dimension with 4 (16:1 compression)

Using IL/XL optimized layout

  • Groups of 4 inlines or crosslines can be read with no redundant I/O
  • A single inline can be read and with no additional I/O compared to the SEG-Y best-case scenario (provided at least 4:1 compression ratio)
  • A z-slice can be read by accessing n_traces/16 disk blocks, compared to n_traces disk blocks for SEG-Y

Using z-slice optimized layout

  • A z-slice can be read by accessing just n_traces/4096 disk blocks, compared to n_traces disk blocks for SEG-Y

The seismic-zfp format also allows for preservation of information in SEG-Y file and trace headers, with compression code identifying constant and varying trace header values and storing these appropriately.


Full example code is provided, but the following reference is useful:

Create SZ files from SEGY

from seismic_zfp.conversion import SegyConverter
with SegyConverter("in.segy") as converter:
    # Create a "standard" SZ file with 8:1 compression, using in-memory method"", bits_per_voxel=4,
    # Create a "z-slice optimized" SZ file"", bits_per_voxel=2, 
                  blockshape=(64, 64, 4))

Read an SZ file

from import SzReader
with SzReader("") as reader:
    inline_slice = reader.read_inline(LINE_NO)
    crossline_slice = reader.read_crossline(LINE_NO)
    z_slice = reader.read_zslice(LINE_NO)
    sub_vol = reader.read_subvolume(min_il=min_il, max_il=max_il, 
                                    min_xl=min_xl, max_xl=max_xl, 
                                    min_z=min_z, max_z=max_z)

Use segyio-like interface to read SZ files

import seismic_zfp
with"")) as szfile:
    inline_slice = szfile.iline[szfile.ilines[LINE_ID]]
    xslice_sz = szfile.xline[szfile.xlines[LINE_ID]]
    zslice_sz = szfile.depth_slice[szfile.zslices[SLICE_ID]]
    trace = szfile.trace[TRACE_ID]
    trace_header = szfile.header[TRACE_ID]
    binary_file_header = szfile.bin
    text_file_header = szfile.text[0]

Convert an SZ file to SEGY

from seismic_zfp.conversion import SzConverter
with SzConverter("") as converter:

Installation Troubleshooting

  • Check your machine has these packages available: python3-devel, git, gcc, gcc-c++

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