Client library for operating OpenStack clouds
shade is a simple client library for operating OpenStack clouds. The key word here is simple. Clouds can do many many many things - but there are probably only about 10 of them that most people care about with any regularity. If you want to do complicated things, you should probably use the lower level client libraries - or even the REST API directly. However, if what you want is to be able to write an application that talks to clouds no matter what crazy choices the deployer has made in an attempt to be more hipster than their self-entitled narcissist peers, then shade is for you.
shade started its life as some code inside of ansible. ansible has a bunch of different OpenStack related modules, and there was a ton of duplicated code. Eventually, between refactoring that duplication into an internal library, and adding logic and features that the OpenStack Infra team had developed to run client applications at scale, it turned out that we’d written nine-tenths of what we’d need to have a standalone library.
Sometimes an example is nice.
from shade import * import time # Initialize cloud # Cloud configs are read with os-client-config cloud = openstack_cloud('mordred') # OpenStackCloud object has an interface exposing OpenStack services methods print cloud.list_servers() s = cloud.list_servers() # But you can also access the underlying python-*client objects # This will go away at some point in time and should be considered only # usable for temporary poking cinder = cloud.cinder_client volumes = cinder.volumes.list() volume_id = [v for v in volumes if v['status'] == 'available']['id'] nova = cloud.nova_client print nova.volumes.create_server_volume(s['id'], volume_id, None) attachments =  print volume_id while not attachments: print "Waiting for attach to finish" time.sleep(1) attachments = cinder.volumes.get(volume_id).attachments print attachments
Shade is a library for managing resources, not for operating APIs. As such, it is the resource in question that is the primary object and not the service that may or may not provide that resource, much as we may feel warm and fuzzy to one of the services.
Every resource at minimum has CRUD functions. Additionally, every resource action should have a “do this task blocking” or “request that the cloud start this action and give me a way to check its status” The creation and deletion of Resources will be handled by a ResourceManager that is attached to the Cloud
class Cloud: ResourceManager<Server> server servers = server ResourceManager<FloatingIp> floating_ip floating_ips = floating_ip ResourceManager<Image> image images = image ResourceManager<Role> role roles = role ResourceManager<Volume> volume volumes = volume
getting, listing and searching
In addition to creating a resource, there are different ways of getting your hands on a resource. A get, a list and a search.
list has the simplest semantics - it takes no parameters and simply returns a list of all of the resources that exist.
search takes a set of parameters to match against and returns a list of resources that match the parameters given. If no resources match, it returns an empty list.
get takes the same set of parameters that search takes, but will only ever return a single matching resource or None. If multiple resources are matched, an exception will be raised.
class ResourceManager<Resource>: def get -> Resource def list -> List<Resource> def search -> List<Resource> def create -> Resource
Cloud and ResourceManager interface
All ResourceManagers should accept a cache object passed in to their constructor and should additionally pass that cache object to all Resource constructors. The top-level cloud should create the cache object, then pass it to each of the ResourceManagers when it creates them.
Client connection objects should exist and be managed at the Cloud level. A backreference to the OpenStack cloud should be passed to every resource manager so that ResourceManagers can get hold of the ones they need. For instance, an Image ResourceManager would potentially need access to both the glance_client and the swift_client.
class ResourceManager def __init__(self, cache, cloud) class ServerManager(ResourceManager) class OpenStackCloud def __init__(self): self.cache = dogpile.cache() self.server = ServerManager(self.cache, self) self.servers = self.server
Any resources that have an association action - such as servers and floating_ips, should carry reciprocal methods on each resource with absolutely no difference in behavior.
class Server(Resource): def connect_floating_ip: class FloatingIp(Resource): def connect_server:
Resource objects should have all of the accessor methods you’d expect, as well as any other interesting rollup methods or actions. For instance, since a keystone User can be enabled or disabled, one should expect that there would be an enable() and a disable() method, and that those methods will immediately operate the necessary REST apis. However, if you need to make 80 changes to a Resource, 80 REST calls may or may not be silly, so there should also be a generic update() method which can be used to request the minimal amount of REST calls needed to update the attributes to the requested values.
Resource objects should all have a to_dict method which will return a plain flat dictionary of their attributes.
class Resource: def update(**new_values) -> Resource def delete -> None, throws on error
create, get, and attach can return resources that are not yet ready. Each method should take a wait and a timeout parameter, that will cause the request for the resource to block until it is ready. However, the user may want to poll themselves. Each resource should have an is_ready method which will return True when the resource is ready. The wait method then can actually be implemented in the base Resource class as an iterate timeout loop around calls to is_ready. Every Resource should also have an is_failed and an is_deleted method.
Not all clouds expose all features. For instance, some clouds do not have floating ips. Additionally, some clouds may have the feature but the user account does not, which is effectively the same thing. This should be handled in several ways:
If the user explicitly requests a resource that they do not have access to, an error should be raised. For instance, if a user tries to create a floating ip on a cloud that does not expose that feature to them, shade should throw a “Your cloud does not let you do that” error.
If the resource concept can be can be serviced by multiple possible services, shade should transparently try all of them. The discovery method should use the dogpile.cache mechanism so that it can be avoided on subsequent tries. For instance, if the user says “please upload this image”, shade should figure out which sequence of actions need to be performed and should get the job done.
If the resource isn’t present on some clouds, but the overall concept the resouce represents is, a different resource should present the concept. For instance, while some clouds do not have floating ips, if what the user wants is “a server with an IP” - then the fact that one needs to request a floating ip on some clouds is a detail, and the right thing for that to be is a quality of a server and managed by the server resource. A floating ip resource should really only be directly manipulated by the user if they were doing something very floating-ip specific, such as moving a floating ip from one server to another.
In short, it should be considered a MASSIVE bug in shade if the shade user ever has to have in their own code “if cloud.has_capability(“X”) do_thing else do_other_thing” - since that construct conveys some resource that shade should really be able to model.
shade should also provide a functional mapping to the object interface that does not expse the object interface at all. For instance, fora resource type server, one could expect the following.
class OpenStackCloud: def create_server return self.server.create().to_dict() def get_server return self.server.get().to_dict() def update_server return self.server.get().update().to_dict()
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