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Sticker is a powerful yet boilerplate-free alternative to writing your web API.

Project description

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:align: center
:alt: Sticker


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Write boilerplate-free Python functions and use them as your API handlers.
Sticker allows you to choose Flask,, Sanic, or Tornado as your
application runtime.


* Community created and maintained
* Support for `OpenAPI 3.0 <>`_
* Multi-framework support: `Flask <>`_, ` <>`_, `Sanic <>`_, and `Tornado <>`_
* Support for **pure Python handlers** (no boilerplate code)

It's Easy to Write

You need a little bit of Python.

.. code-block:: python

# filename:

def say_hello(params):
return {"contents": "Hello World!"}

Plus bits of your API description.

.. code-block:: yml

# filename: hello.yml
openapi: "3.0.0"
operationId: hello.say_hello

Now the fun part, you choose which web framework you want to use.

Run with Flask:

.. code-block:: python

from sticker import FlaskAPI
api = FlaskAPI('hello.yml')

Run with

.. code-block:: python

from sticker import BottleAPI
api = BottleAPI('hello.yml')

Run with Sanic:

.. code-block:: python

from sticker import SanicAPI
api = SanicAPI('hello.yml')

Run with Tornado:

.. code-block:: python

from sticker import TornadoAPI
import tornado.ioloop
api = TornadoAPI('hello.yml')

The framework setup, validation, types conversion, and mocking is handled at runtime by Sticker.


Sticker is published at PyPI, so you can use `pip` to install:

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip install sticker


Sticker was developed for __Python >=3.6__ and __OpenAPI 3.0__. Support for Python 2.7 is not present nor planned for this project.


Sticker is a flexible metaframework for Web API development and execution. The OpenAPI 3.0 standard is used as
description format for Sticker powered APIs. You provide the API specification and choose one of the
Sticker's runtimes to have a webserver up and running.

In this document we will describe a few different ways to write code that works well with Sticker.

Pure Python Handlers

Sticker supports the use of pure Python functions as handlers. Your code will be free of any framework
specific boilerplate code, including Sticker's itself. This allows you to swap between different frameworks
as you wish. Sticker will take care of putting together your code, your API, and the framework you choose.

.. code-block:: python

def myhandler(params):
return {
"content": f"Hello {params.get("name", "World")}!",
"status": 200

Writing tests for pure Python handles is easy and also
free of boilerplate code.

.. code-block:: python

def test_myhandler():
params = {
"name": "John Doe"
response = myhandler(params)
assert response["content"] == "Hello John Doe!"

As you could see in the example above, no imports from Sticker were necessary to define the API handler function.
This is only possible because Sticker expects your handlers to follow a code convention.

Anatomy Of An API Handler Function

Write this part.


API handlers are expected to return a Python dictionary (`dict`) object. The returned dictionary defines how a response
will look like. All keys in the dictionary are optional. The expected keys are described in the table bellow.

=========== ======================== ===========
Key Type Description
=========== ======================== ===========
content str Body of HTTP request. No treatment/parsing of this value is done. The value is passed directly to the chosen framework.
json Union[dict, List[dict]] JSON value to be used in the body of the request. This is a shortcut to having the header "Content-Type: application/json" and serializing this value using the most common way done by the chosen framework.
file Union[IO[AnyStr], str] Data to be returned as byte stream. This is a shortcut for having the header "Content-Type: application/octet-stream". Uses the most common way to stream files with the chosen framework.
redirect str The path or full URL to be redirected. This is a shortcut for having the header "Location:" with HTTP status `301`.
status int The HTTP status code to be used in the response. This value overrides any shortcut default status code.
headers Dict[str, str] The HTTP headers to be used in the response. This value is merged with the shortcut values with priority.
=========== ======================== ===========

We have exposed here some examples of using different configurations of the `dict` we've defined above to describe the
HTTP response of API handlers. The actual HTTP response value generated will vary depending on the framework chosen as
runtime. The examples are a minimal illustration of what to expect to be the HTTP response.

The "content" key can be used when it's desired to return a "Hello world!" string with status `200`.

.. code-block:: python

def say_hello(params):
return {"content": "Hello world!"}

Results in the HTTP response similar to:

.. code-block::

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/plain

Hello world!

The "json" key can be used when desired to return an JSON response with status `201`.

.. code-block:: python

def create(params):
data = {
"id": "uhHuehuE",
"value": "something"
return {"json": data, "status": 201}

The HTTP response generated will be similar to:

.. code-block::

HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Content-Type: application/json


The "file" key is used to return file contents.

.. code-block:: python

def homepage(params):
return {
"file": open('templates/home.html', 'r'),
"headers": {
"Content-Type": "text/html"

The HTTP response will be similar to:

.. code-block::

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/html

<html><title>My homepage</title><body><h1>Welcome!</h1></body></html>

When necessary to redirect request, the "redirect" key can be used.

.. code-block:: python

def old_endpoint(params):
return {'redirect': '/new-path'}

The HTTP response will be similar to:

.. code-block::

HTTP/1.1 301 Moved Permanently

The usage of keys "status" and "headers" were shown in the previous examples. The "status" and "headers" keys, when set,
override the values set by default when using the shortcut keys ("json", "file", and "redirect").

Error Handling

Sticker expects you to define the error format to be returned by your API. A error handler is configurable,
and called every time validation for the endpoint fails.

.. code-block:: python

def error_handler(error):
return {
"content": {
"error": error["message"]
"headers": {
"Content-Type": "application/json"
"status_code": 400


Sticker is developed under the `Apache 2.0 license <>`_
and is publicly available to everyone. We are happy to accept contributions.

How to Contribute

#. Check for open issues or open a fresh issue to start a discussion around a feature idea or a bug. There is a `Good First Issue`_ tag for issues that should be ideal for people who are not very familiar with the codebase yet.
#. Fork `the repository`_ on GitHub to start making your changes to the **master** branch (or branch off of it).
#. Write a test which shows that the bug was fixed or that the feature works as expected.
#. Send a pull request and bug the maintainer until it gets merged and published. :) Make sure to add yourself to AUTHORS_.

.. _`the repository`:
.. _Good First Issue:

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