Lazily-evaluated stream with pipelining via the '>>' operator
Streams are generalized iterators with a pipelining mechanism to enable data-flow programming.
The idea is to take the output of a function that turn an iterable into another iterable and plug that as the input of another such function. While you can already do this using function composition, this package provides an elegant notation for it by overloading the ‘>>’ operator.
This approach focuses the programming on processing streams of data, step by step. A pipeline usually starts with a generator, then passes through a number of filters. Multiple streams can be branched and combined. Finally, the output is fed to an accumulator, which can be any function of one iterable argument.
- Generators: anything iterable
- from this module: seq, gseq, repeatcall, chaincall
- by index: take, drop, cut
- by condition: filter, takewhile, dropwhile
- by transformation: map, apply, fold
- special purpose: attrgetter, itemgetter, methodcaller, splitter
Combinators: prepend, takei, dropi, tee, flatten
- Accumulators: item, maximum, minimum, reduce
- from Python: list, sum, dict, max, min …
take() and item work similarly, except for notation and the fact that item returns a list whereas take() returns a stream which can be further piped to another filter.
Values are computed only when an accumulator forces some or all evaluation (not when the stream are set up).
>>> from itertools import count >>> c = count() >>> c >> item[1:10:2] [1, 3, 5, 7, 9] >>> c >> item[:5] [10, 11, 12, 13, 14]
Grep some lines matching a regex from a file, cut out the 4th field separated by ‘ ‘, ‘:’ or ‘.’, strip leading zeroes, then save as a list:
import re s = open('file') \ >> filter(re.compile(regex).search) \ >> map(splitter(' |:|\.')) \ >> map(itemgetter(3)) \ >> map(methodcaller('lstrip', '0')) \ >> list
Compute the first few partial sums of the geometric series 1 + 1/2 + 1/4 + ..:
>>> gseq(0.5) >> fold(operator.add) >> item[:5] [1, 1.5, 1.75, 1.875, 1.9375]
Random Walk in 2D
Generate an infinite stream of coordinates representing the position of a random walker in 2D:
from random import choice vectoradd = lambda u,v: zip(u, v) >> apply(operator.add) >> list directions = [[1,0], [0,1], [-1,0], [0,-1]] rw = lambda: repeatcall(choice, directions) >> fold(vectoradd, [0, 0])
Calling choice repeatedly yields the series of unit vectors representing the directions that the walker takes, then these vectors are gradually added to get a series of coordinates.
To instantiate a random-walk, and get the first 10 coordinates:
walk = rw() walk >> item[:10]
Question: what is the farthest point that the walker wanders upto the first return to the origin? (Note that he might never return at all!):
vectorlen = lambda v: v >> map(lambda x: x**2) >> sum rw() >> drop(1) >> takewhile(lambda v: v != [0, 0]) >> maximum(key=vectorlen)
The first coordinate [0, 0], which is the origin, needs to be dropped otherwise takewhile will truncate immediately.
We can also probe into the walker’s chosen path:
probe = Stream() rw() >> drop(1) >> takewhile(lambda v: v != [0, 0]) >> tee(probe) >> maximum(key=vectorlen)
Now you can see his exact coordinates, for example the first 10 are:
probe >> item[:10]
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