Plug applications and extensions in a TurboGears2 project
About Pluggable Apps
tgext.pluggable permits to plug extensions and applications inside a TG projects much like the Django Apps.
tgext.pluggable can be installed both from pypi or from bitbucket:
should just work for most of the users
In your application config/app_cfg.py import plug:
from tgext.pluggable import plug
Then at the end of the file call plug for each pluggable application you want to enable (package_name must be already installed in your python environment):
The plug function accepts various optional arguments, for example if the plugged application exposes a controller you can mount it in a different place specifying a different appid:
plug(base_config, 'package_name', 'new_app_id')
Other options include:
- plug_helpers (True/False) -> Enable helpers injection
- plug_models (True/False) -> Enable models plugging
- plug_controller (True/False) -> Mount pluggable app root controller
- plug_bootstrap (True/False) -> Enable websetup.bootstrap plugging
- plug_statics (True/False) -> Enable plugged app statics
- rename_tables (True/False) -> Rename pluggable tables by prepending appid.
Relations with Plugged Apps Models
There are cases when you might need to create a relationship or a foreign key with a model which is defined by a pluggable application. As pluggable application models are loaded after loading your application they are not available at the time your app models are imported.
tgext.pluggable provides some utilities to make easier to create relations with models defined by pluggable applications.
The first step you might want to take is setting the global_models=True parameter to the plug call, this will make all the models declared by the pluggable application available to you:
plug(base_config, 'package_name', global_models=True)
After the specified pluggable application is plugged, the models will be available inside your code through the tgext.pluggable.app_model object.
Then you can create foreign keys to the desired model using the tgext.pluggable.LazyForeignKey class and declare relations using the lazy version of sqlalchemy.orm.relation:
from tgext.pluggable import app_model, LazyForeignKey class AdditionalInfo(DeclarativeBase): __tablename__ = 'sample_model' uid = Column(Integer, primary_key=True) data = Column(Unicode(255), nullable=False) plugged_model_id = Column(Integer, LazyForeignKey(lambda:app_model.PluggedModel.uid)) plugged_model = relation(lambda: app_model.PluggedModel)
tgext.pluggables provides a bunch of utilities to work with partials. Partials in tgext.pluggable can be declared as a function or TGController subclass method that has an @expose decorator. Those partials can lately be rendered with:
In the case of a class method:
The quickstarted pluggable application provides an example partial:
from tg import expose @expose('plugappname.templates.little_partial') def something(name): return dict(name=name)
which can be rendered using:
tgext.pluggable provides a function to replace templates. This is useful when you want to override the template that an application you plugged in is exposing. To override call replace_template inside your application config:
from tgext.pluggable import replace_template replace_template(base_config, 'myapp.templates.about', 'myapp.templates.index')
replace_template will work even with tgext.pluggable partials, but won’t work with templates rendered directly calling the render method.
Calls to replace_template must be performed before the application has started.
tgext.pluggable provides a function to patch templates, the result of a template rendering will be passed through a list of operations which will make possible to alter the rendering result.
This behavior is much inspired by Deliverance http://pythonhosted.org/Deliverance
meant for much simpler use cases. The most common usage is for small changes to templates
of plugged applications. For advanced manipulations using
replace_template is suggested
as it’s both faster and easier to maintain.
Template patching is enabled by using the
from tgext.pluggable import load_template_patches load_template_patches(base_config)
Supposing your project is inside a Python distribution named myapp this will load the template_patches.xml file from the root of the distribution and will apply all the specified patches.
To load template patches from a python module (or pluggable) use:
You can use previous expression even to load patches from your own application in case the distribution automatic detection failed.
Template patching format is an xml file in the form of:
<patches> <patch template="tgext.crud.templates.get_all"> <content selector="#crud_content > h1" template="myapp.templates.replacements.crud_title" /> <append selector="#crud_content > h1" template="myapp.templates.replacements.crud_subtitle" /> <prepend selector="#crud_content > h1" template="myapp.templates.replacements.crud_superscript" /> <replace selector="#crud_btn_new > .add_link" template="" /> </patch> </patches>
Each action listed inside the patch will be performed whenever the specified template is rendered, the template associated to the action will be used as the content of the templacement and the same data available to the patched template will be available to the action template too. Available actions are:
content- replaces the content of tags identified by the selector
append- appends after the tags identified by the selector
prepend- prepends before the tags identified by the selector
replace- replaces the tags identified bt the selector.
Creating Pluggable Apps
tgext.pluggable provides a quickstart-pluggable command to create a new pluggable application:
$ gearbox quickstart-pluggable plugtest Enter package name [plugtest]: ...
The quickstarted application will provide an example on how to use models, helpers, bootstrap, controllers and statics.
In the previous example the pluggable application can be enabled inside any TurboGears using:
After enabling the plugtest application you should run gearbox setup-app inside your TurboGears project to create the sample model. Then you can access the sample application page though http://localhost:8080/plugtest
The plugme Entry Point
Pluggable applications are required to implement a plugme(app_config, options) entry point which will be called when plugging the application.
The plugme action is called before TurboGears configuration has been loaded so that it is possible to register more pluggables inside the plugme hook. This way a pluggable can plug any dependency it requires just by calling tgext.pluggable.plug inside its own plugme function.
Any options passed to the plug call will be available inside the options dictionary, other parts of the pluggable applications like controllers, models and so on will be imported after the call to plugme so that plugme can set any configuration options that will drive the behavior of the other parts.
Keep in mind that as plugme is called before loading the TurboGears configuration if you need to perform something based on any configuration file option you must register a setup from the plugme call and perform them there.
Changing Static Files Behavior
By default every pluggable application serves all the static files available inside its public directory as they are. This is performed by a WSGI application which is in charge of serving the static files. Since version 0.2.1 it is now possible to replace this application or apply any WSGI middleware to it through the static_middlewares option.
For example you can enable SCSS inside your pluggable application by defining a plugme function like:
from tgext.scss import SCSSMiddleware def plugme(app_config, options): return dict(appid='plugtest', global_helpers=False, static_middlewares=[SCSSMiddleware])
Accessing Application Models from Pluggable Apps
When creating a pluggable application you might often need to access to some models that have been declared inside the target application where the pluggable app will be mounted.
The most common use case for this is referencing the User, Group and Permission models. To do this tgext.pluggable provides an app_model object which wraps the application model and is initialized before loading the pluggable app.
This makes possible to access target application models referencing them as app_model.User or app_model.Group and so on. While you can guess that the primary key for those models is known (for the app_model.User object for example you might consider referencing to it as app_model.User.user_id) it is best practice to call the primary_key function provided by tgext.pluggable to get a reference to its column.
This way it is possibile to declare relations to models which are not provided by your pluggable app:
from tgext.pluggable import app_model, primary_key user_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey(primary_key(app_model.User))) user = relation(app_model.User)
Pluggable Relative Urls
It is possible to generate an url relative to a pluggable mount point using the plug_url(pluggable, path, params=None, lazy=False) this function is also exposed inside the application helpers when a pluggable is used. For example to generate an url relative to the plugtest pluggable it is possible to call plug_url:
To perform redirects inside a pluggable app the plug_redirect(pluggable, path, params=None) function is provided. This function exposes the same interface as plug_url but performs a redirect much like tg.redirect.
It is possible to initialize a migrations repository for a pluggable application. This makes possible to evolve the database at later times for each pluggable application using the alembic migration library for SQLAlchemy.
Create Migration Repository
To be able to manage migrations the pluggable has to be initialized with a migration repository to perform so, the author of the pluggable application has to run:
$ gearbox migrate-pluggable plugtest init
Then to create migration scripts run:
$ gearbox migrate-pluggable plugtest create 'Add column for user_name'
A file named like
2c8c79324a5e_Add_column_for_user_name.py will be available inside the
of the pluggable application.
Remember to add this directory to your distribution package to make it available to users of your pluggable application
If the pluggable application your are using supports migrations it is possible to apply them
It is possible to run
upgrade to move forward:
$ gearbox migrate-pluggable plugtest upgrade 22:11:28,029 INFO [alembic.migration] Running upgrade None -> 3ca22a16fdcc
downgrade to revert a migration:
$ gearbox migrate-pluggable plugtest downgrade 22:15:24,004 INFO [alembic.migration] Running downgrade 3ca22a16fdcc -> None
The versioning commands support being called on all the pluggables enabled inside your application
all as the pluggable name. This will load your application to detect the plugged
apps and will run the specified command for each one of them:
$ gearbox migrate-pluggable all db_version 22:15:54,104 INFO [tgext.pluggable] Plugging plug1 22:15:54,105 INFO [tgext.pluggable] Plugging plug2 22:15:54,106 INFO [tgext.pluggable] Plugging plug3 Migrating plug1, plug3, plug2 plug1 Migrations Repository '/tmp/PLUGS/plug1/migration' Configuration File 'development.ini' Versioning Table 'plug1_migrate' 22:15:54,249 INFO [alembic.migration] Context impl SQLiteImpl. 22:15:54,249 INFO [alembic.migration] Will assume transactional DDL. Current revision for sqlite:////tmp/provaapp/devdata.db: 4edef05cc346 -> 1ae930148d69 (head), fourth migration plug3 Migrations Repository '/tmp/PLUGS/plug3/migration' Configuration File 'development.ini' Versioning Table 'plug3_migrate' 22:15:54,253 INFO [alembic.migration] Context impl SQLiteImpl. 22:15:54,254 INFO [alembic.migration] Will assume transactional DDL. Current revision for sqlite:////tmp/provaapp/devdata.db: 15819683bb72 -> 453f571f41e4 (head), test migration plug2 Migrations Repository '/tmp/PLUGS/plug2/migration' Configuration File 'development.ini' Versioning Table 'plug2_migrate' 22:15:54,258 INFO [alembic.migration] Context impl SQLiteImpl. 22:15:54,259 INFO [alembic.migration] Will assume transactional DDL. Current revision for sqlite:////tmp/provaapp/devdata.db: 154b4f69cbd1 -> 2c8c79324a5e (head), third migration