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A set of tools for common python problems

Project description

Tools by Ouroboros Coding

pypi version MIT License

A set of functions for common python problems


Tools-OC requires python 3.10 or higher


pip install Tools-OC



clone is used to make a complete copy of a dictionary from top to bottom. It follows keys that are either dictionaries or lists and clones them as well, but copies anything else as is. Great for copying raw data like JSON, not great for complex structures containing class instances.

>>> from tools import clone
>>> a = {'hello': 'their'}
>>> b = a
>>> a['hello'] = 'there'
>>> b['hello']
>>> b = clone(a)
>>> a['hello'] = 'fruit loops'
>>> b['hello']


combine is used to generate a new dictionary by cloning the first one passed, then by merging the second into it, and returning it

>>> from tools import combine
>>> a = { 'one': 1 }
>>> b = { 'two': 2 }
>>> c = combine(a, b)
>>> c
{'one': 1, 'two': 2}
>>> d = combine(c, { 'one': 'une' })
>>> d
{'one': 'une', 'two': 2}


compare is used to compare any two values. It will compare dicts and lists by traversing them, but will check any other value one to one. Like clone, it is very useful for raw data like JSON, but not great for anything with complex data like class instances unless they take care of overloading __eq__

>>> from tools import compare
>>> compare({'one': 1, 'two': 2}, {'two': 2, 'one': 1})
>>> compare([1, 2, 3], [3, 2, 1])
>>> compare([{'one': 1}], [{'one': 1}])


crop takes two sets of dimensions and returns what the first set needs to be resized to in order to make one side fit, and the other side cropped.

>>> from tools import crop
>>> crop(512, 1024, 500, 500)
{'w': 500, 'h': 1000}
>>> crop(1920, 1080, 1024, 1024)
{'w': 1820, 'h': 1024}


evaluate is used to evaluate if a dictionary contains the keys it requires, without a lot of complicated configuration. It's meant for simple dictionaries, but can also check keys of keys

>>> from tools import evaluate
>>> evaluate({'one': 1, 'two': 2}, ['one', 'two', 'three'])
ValueError: three


fit takes two sets of dimensions and returns what the first set needs to be resized to in order for both sides to fit, leaving one side empty (whitespace)

>>> from tools import fit
>>> fit(512, 1024, 500, 500)
{'w': 250, 'h': 500}
>>> fit(1920, 1080, 1024, 1024)
{'w': 1024, 'h': 576}


Used to get the actual IP address of the client by using the provided dictionary of environment variables

>>> from tools import get_client_ip
>>> from bottle import request
>>> get_client_ip(request.environ)


Traverses a dictionary and converts any keys from strings to integers. Helpful for processing data like JSON that won't allow keys as anything other than strings

>>> from tools import keys_to_ints
>>> keys_to_ints({'1': 'one', '2': 'two'})
{1: 'one', 2: 'two'}


Steps through the given list of dictionaries looking for one with a key that matches the value, and returns the index of that dictionary in the list, else -1 for no dictionary found.

>>> from tools import lfindi
>>> l = [
...     {'name': 'Bob', 'job': 'Accountant'},
...     {'name': 'Frank', 'job': 'Salesman'}
... ]
>>> lfindi(l, 'name', 'Frank')
>>> lfindi(l, 'name', 'Stan')


Works exactly the same as lfindi, but returns the dictionary instead of its index

>>> from tools import lfindd
>>> l = [
...     {'name': 'Bob', 'job': 'Accountant'},
...     {'name': 'Frank', 'job': 'Salesman'}
... ]
>>> lfindd(l, 'name', 'Stan') # Returns None, which does not display
>>> lfindd(l, 'name', 'Frank')
{'name': 'Frank', 'job': 'Salesman'}


Works exactly the same as the combine function, but instead of creating a new dict by cloning the first one, that step is skipped and the second dict is simple merged with the first and returned altered

>>> from tools import merge
>>> a = { 'one': 1, 'three': { 'four': 4 } }
>>> b = { 'two': 2, 'three': { 'four': 'quatre' }}
>>> merge(a, b)
{'one': 1, 'three': {'four': 'quatre'}, 'two': 2}
>>> a
{'one': 1, 'three': {'four': 'quatre'}, 'two': 2}

merge contains an optional third parameter called return_changes that will return the differences found while merging the second dict over the first.

>>> from tools import merge
>>> a = { 'one': 1, 'three': { 'four': 4 } }
>>> b = { 'two': 2, 'three': { 'four': 'quatre' }}
>>> merge(a, b, True)
{'two': 2, 'three': {'four': 'quatre'}}
>>> merge(a, {'one': 1, 'three': { 'four': 4 }}, True)
{'three': {'four': 4}}


region returns a new set of region points based on a current width and height and the bounding box. It is most useful combined with crop/fit in order to center a resized image to fit in the new dimensions

from tools import region
>>> region(512, 1024, 500, 500)
{'x': 6, 'y': 0, 'w': 506, 'h': 500}
>>> region(1920, 1080, 1024, 1024)
{'x': 448, 'y': 0, 'w': 1472, 'h': 1024}


without is used to strip out one or more keys from a dictionary, or a list of dictionaries

>>> from tools import without
>>> l = [
...     {'one': 'one', 'two': 'two', 'three': 'three', 'four': 'four'},
...     {'one': 'une', 'two': 'deux', 'three': 'trois', 'four': 'quatre'},
...     {'one': 'uno', 'two': 'dos', 'three': 'tres', 'four': 'cuatro'}
... ]
>>> without(l, ['three', 'four'])
[{'one': 'one', 'two': 'two'}, {'one': 'une', 'two': 'deux'}, {'one': 'uno', 'two': 'dos'}]
>>> without(l[2], 'four')
{'one': 'uno', 'two': 'dos', 'three': 'tres'}

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