Skip to main content

Tools for processing treebank trees

Project description

treetools is a collection of tools for processing treebank trees. It contains algorithms for tree manipulation (such as removal of crossing branches), tree analysis, and grammar extraction.

treetools has been developed at the Department for Computational Linguistics at the Institute for Language and Information at the University of Düsseldorf, Germany (see The project is sponsored by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). It is maintained by Wolfgang Maier.

Author: Wolfgang Maier <>. Contributions: Kilian Gebhardt



  • Python 2.7.3+/3.4+

To install the latest release from the Python package index, type:

pip install treetools --user

To install the latest version clone the git repository and run:

python install --user

within the repository directory.

If you have superuser privileges and want to perform a system-wide installation, omit the –user option, respectively.



To run treetools, type:

treetools [subcommand] [parameters] [options]

Available subcommands are:

  • transform: Process treebank trees. Run transformations and convert between different formats.
  • grammar: Extract grammars for different parsers from treebanks.
  • treeanalysis: Analyze certain properties of treebank trees, such as, e.g., gap degree.

To get see the available parameters for a subcommand, type:

treetools [subcommand] --help

To get verbose help on available transformation algorithms, available options, etc., type:

treetools [subcommand] --usage


To attach the punctuation in TIGER and remove its crossing branches while converting it from TigerXML to the export format, type:

treetools transform tiger.xml tiger.continuous.export --trans root_attach negra_mark_heads boyd_split raising --src-format tigerxml --dest-format export

To extract the bare sentences (one per line) from a treebank in bracketed format, such as the Penn Treebank, type:

treetools transform treebank.brackets treebank.terminals --src-format brackets --dest-format terminals

To delete the traces and co-indexation from the Penn Treebank, type:

treetools transform ptb ptb.notrace --transform ptb_transform --src-format brackets --dest-format brackets

To extract an left-to-right binarized LCFRS with v1/h2 markovization in rparse format from an export-format treebank, type:

treetools grammar input_treebank output_grammar leftright --dest-format rcg --markov v:1 h:2


The code is released under the GNU General Public Licence (GPL) 3.0 or higher. The license texts can be found at at

Project details

Download files

Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.

Files for treetools, version 0.3.0
Filename, size File type Python version Upload date Hashes
Filename, size treetools-0.3.0-py3-none-any.whl (56.0 kB) File type Wheel Python version py3 Upload date Hashes View
Filename, size treetools-0.3.0.tar.gz (49.7 kB) File type Source Python version None Upload date Hashes View

Supported by

AWS AWS Cloud computing Datadog Datadog Monitoring DigiCert DigiCert EV certificate Facebook / Instagram Facebook / Instagram PSF Sponsor Fastly Fastly CDN Google Google Object Storage and Download Analytics Microsoft Microsoft PSF Sponsor Pingdom Pingdom Monitoring Salesforce Salesforce PSF Sponsor Sentry Sentry Error logging StatusPage StatusPage Status page