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Python Twisted library that performs high performanceasynchronous traceroutes using mtr-packet.

Project description

twisted-mtr

A Python Twisted library that performs asynchronous high performance traceroutes using mtr-packet.

twisted-mtr is designed to enable Twisted (as in the Python Twisted networking framework to perform fully asynchronous IPv4 and IPv6 traceroutes.

Installation

twisted-mtr requires the Twisted library as a dependancy as well as the the mtr-packet binary to be available in your systems PATH. You can install twisted-mtr via pip:

$ pip install twisted-mtr

Any modern version of Python3 will be compatible.

For mtr-packet this is typically available from your systems package manager. For example on Debian / Ubuntu based systems install the mtr-tiny package:

# Will need to be run as root
$ apt install mtr-tiny

For Fedora / Redhat based systems this package is called mtr:

# Will need to be run as root
$ yum install mtr

For Alpine based systems this package is called mtr:

# Will need to be run as root
$ apk add mtr

Consult whatever package manager your system uses if it's not one of the above examples. There may not be a suitable option for Windows systems and Windows support has not been tested.

Once you have Python, Twisted, the twisted-mtr library and the mtr-packet binary installed you are good to go.

Usage

twisted-mtr requires a source IP, either IPv4 or IPv6, as the source of your traceroutes. This is not detected for you and needs to be manually set. It's outside the scope of this library to detect your local IP. Specifying the IP address also selects which physical or virtual network interface you want to send the traceroutes from.

A helper utility exists to help find the path to your mtr-packet binary.

A basic example would be:

import ipaddress
from twisted.internet import reactor 
from twisted_mtr import utils, mtr

# Find mtr-packet
mtr_binary_name = 'mtr-packet'
mtr_binary_path = utils.find_binary(mtr_binary_name)

# Replace with a local IPv4 address
local_ipv4 = ipaddress.IPv4Address('10.11.22.33')

# Address we're tracing to
target_ipv4 = ipaddress.IPv4Address('1.1.1.1')

# Create the Twisted Protocol instance
app_mtr = mtr.TraceRoute(mtr_binary_path=mtr_binary_path,
                         local_ipv4=local_ipv4)

# Spawn the mtr-packet process attached to the protocol
reactor.spawnProcess(app_mtr, mtr_binary_name, [mtr_binary_path], {})

# Callback fired when the traceroute is complete
def traceroute_complete(target_ip, hops):
    print(f'Traceroute complete to {target_ip} in {len(hops)} hops')
    for (hop_num, hop_ip, microseconds) in hops:
        print(f' - {hop_num} {hop_ip} {microseconds}')
    # Trace complete, stop the reactor
    reactor.stop()

# Callback fired if there's an error
def trace_error(counter, joined_request, error, extra):
    print(f'Error running traceroute: {error}')
    # Error during traceroute, stop the reactor
    reactor.stop()

# Start our trace with our callbacks set
app_mtr.trace(traceroute_complete, trace_error, target_ip)

# Start the Twisted reactor to begin the traceroute
reactor.run()

See example-trace.py for an example implementation with multiple IPv4 and IPv6 traceroutes running concurrently.

API synopsis

twisted-mtr has really only one class you would interact with at twisted_mtr.mtr.TraceRoute that takes the following parameters:

my_traceroute_object = TraceRoute(
    # Full path to your mtr-packet binary
    mtr_binary_path='/usr/bin/mtr-packet',
    # An IPv4Address object for your local (source) IPv4 address
    local_ipv4=ipaddress.IPv4Adddress('127.2.3.4'),
    # An IPv6Address object for your local (source) IPv6 address
    local_ipv6=ipaddress.IPv6Adddress('::1')
)

You may leave local_ipv4 or local_ipv6 out if your system only has IPv4 or IPv6 available, however at least one of them must be set or an exception will be raised.

You can, for obvious reasons, only send IPv4 traceroutes if local_ipv4 is set and you can only send IPv6 traceroutes if local_ipv6 is set.

If you set your local_ipv* address incorrectly your traceroutes may trigger the error callback with a network error or simply time out.

Once your TraceRoute object has been created you start a traceroute with the following method:

my_traceroute_object.trace(
    # Must be a function that exists or a lambda
    success_callback_function,
    # Must be a function that exists or a lambda
    failure_callback_function,
    # An IPv4Address or IPv6Address object of the address to traceroute to
    ipaddress.IPv4Address('1.1.1.1'),
    # The protocol to use, defaults to 'icmp', can be 'icmp' or 'tcp'
    protocol='tcp',
    # The port number to use if the protocol is 'tcp', otherwise ignored
    port=443,
    # TTL to start the trace at, defaults to 1, set to 2 or more to skip hops
    ttl=1
)

When the traceroute completes or errors the callbacks will be called with the following parameters:

def success_callback_function(timestamp, target_ip, protocol, port, hops):
    # target_ip is an IPvNAddress object of the address the traceroute was to
    # protocol is either 'icmp' or 'tcp'
    # port is the TCP port if the trace type is 'tcp', otherwise -1
    print(f'Completed trace started at {timestamp} to: {target_ip} '
          f'({protocol}:{port})')
    # hops is a list of the traceroute hops, each hop has 5 parameters, e.g.
    #hops = [
    #    (1, '10.0.0.1', 20),
    #    (2, '22.22.22.22', 111),
    #    (3, '33.33.33.33', 222),
    #    (4,  None, None),
    #    (5, '55.55.55.55', 444),
    #]
    # The IP and milliseconds of the hop may be None if the hop did not
    # respond to the traceroute request or it timed out. Parameter 4 is the
    # protocol of the trace. Prameter 5 is the port number if the protocol is
    # 'tcp'. Example TCP trace hop:
    #  (1, '10.0.0.1', 20, 'tcp', 443)
    for hop in hops:
        hop_number, hop_ip, latency_in_milliseconds = hop
        print(f' - {hop}: {hop_ip} {latency_in_milliseconds} ms')

def failure_callback_function(hop_number, request, error, extra):
    # Errors are things like mtr-packet return a serious error for your
    # traceroute request or network errors, not Python errors.
    #
    # hop_number is the traceroute hop where the error occured
    # request the mtr-packet request that generated the error
    # error is the error message as a string
    # extra is any addtional data that was bundled with the request
    print(f'An error occured at hop {hop_number} sending MTR request '
          f'"{request}" with error: {error}')

Tests

There is a test suite that you can run by cloning this repository, installing the required dependancies and execuiting:

$ make test

Debugging

twisted-mtr will emit debug logs if you use Python's logging module. Enable them with level=logging.DEBUG in your application when you initialise your logger.

Contributing

All properly formatted and sensible pull requests, issues and comments are welcome.

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