Skip to main content

Typical: Take Typing Further.

Project description

Typical: Take Typing Further. :duck:

image

image image image image image codecov Code style: black Netlify Status

Take Typing Further with Typical. Make your annotations work for you.

Quickstart

In order to install, simply pip3 install typical and annotate to your heart's content! :duck:

Or, if you're building an application, you should use Poetry: poetry add typical

Updates

See the Changelog.

Documentation

See the full documentation Here.

Motivations

In the world of web-services development, type-safety becomes necessary for the sanity of your code and your fellow developers. This is not to say that static-typing is the solution - When it comes to the external entrypoints to your code, not even a compiler is going to help you.

With Python3, type annotations were introduced. With Python3.7, the library was completely re-written for performance and ease-of-use. Type annotations are here to stay and I couldn't be happier about it.

However, there is one place where annotations fall down. There is no provided path for ensuring the type-safety of your methods, functions, and classes. This means if you're receiving data from an external source, (such as with a web service) you still need to do this work yourself.

Until now.

Automatic, Guaranteed Duck-Typing

Behold, the power of Typical:

>>> import typic
>>>
>>> @typic.al
>>> def multi(a: int, b: int):
...    return a * b
...
>>> multi('2', '3')
6

Take it further...

>>> import dataclasses
>>> import enum
>>> import typic
>>>
>>> class DuckType(str, enum.Enum):
...     MAL = 'mallard'
...     BLK = 'black'
...     WHT = 'white'
... 
>>> @typic.al
... @dataclasses.dataclass
... class Duck:
...     type: DuckType
...     name: str
...
>>> donald = Duck('white', 'Donald')
>>> donald.type
<DuckType.WHT: 'white'>

This is all fine and dandy, but can we go... further? :thinking:

>>> class DuckRegistry:
...     """A Registry for all the ducks"""
...     
...     @typic.al
...     def __init__(self, *duck: Duck):
...         self._reg = {x.name: x for x in duck}
... 
...     @typic.al
...     def add(self, duck: Duck):
...         self._reg[duck.name] = duck
... 
...     @typic.al
...     def find(self, name: str):
...         """Try to find a duck by its name. Otherwise, try with type."""
...         if name not in self._reg:
...             matches = [x for x in self._reg.values() if x.type == name]
...             if matches:
...                 return matches[-1] if len(matches) == 1 else matches
...         return self._reg[name]
... 
>>> registry = DuckRegistry({'type': 'black', 'name': 'Daffy'})
>>> registry.find('Daffy')
Duck(type=<DuckType.BLK: 'black'>, name='Daffy')
>>> registry.add({'type': 'white', 'name': 'Donald'})
>>> registry.find('Donald')
Duck(type=<DuckType.WHT: 'white'>, name='Donald')

>>> registry.add({'type': 'goose', 'name': 'Maynard'})
Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
ValueError: 'goose' is not a valid DuckType

What Just Happended Here?

When we wrap a callable with @typic.al, the wrapper reads the signature of the callable and automatically coerces the incoming data to the type which is annotated. This includes varargs (*args and **kwargs). This means that you no longer need to do the work of converting incoming data yourself. You just need to signal what you expect the data to be with an annotation and Typical will do the rest.

The ValueError we see in the last operation is what we can expect when attempting to supply an invalid value for the Enum class we used above. Rather than have to write code to cast this data and handle stuff that's invalid, you can rest easy in the guarantee that the data you expect is the data you'll get.

What's Supported?

As of this version, Typical can parse the following inputs into valid Python types and classes:

  • JSON
  • Python literals (via ast.literal_eval)
  • Date-strings and Unix Timestamps (via pendulum)
  • Custom NewType declarations.
  • and so much more...

Limitations

Forward Refs

A "forward reference" is a reference to a type which has either not yet been defined, or is not available within the module which the annotation lives. This is noted by encapsulating the annotation in quotes, e.g.: foo: 'str' = 'bar'. Beware of using such syntax in combination with Typical. Typical makes use of typing.get_type_hints, which scans the namespace(s) available to the given object to resolve annotations. If the annotation is unavailable, a NameError will be raised. This behavior is considered valid. If you wish to make use of Typical for type-coercion, make sure the annotated type is in the namespace of the object you're wrapping and avoid Forward References if at all possible.

Special Forms

There is a subset of type annotations which are 'suscriptable' - meaning you can specify what other types this annotation may resolve to. In a few of those cases, the intended type for the incoming data is too ambiguous to resolve. The following annotations are special forms which cannot be resolved:

  • Union
  • Any

Because these signal an unclear resolution, Typical will ignore this flavor of annotation, leaving it to the developer to determine the appropriate action.

How to Contribute

  1. This project is packaged and distributed with Poetry
  2. Check for open issues or open a fresh issue to start a discussion around a feature idea or a bug.
  3. Create a branch on Github for your issue or fork the repository on GitHub to start making your changes to the master branch.
  4. Write a test which shows that the bug was fixed or that the feature works as expected.
  5. Send a pull request and bug the maintainer until it gets merged and published. :)

Happy Typing :duck:

Project details


Release history Release notifications | RSS feed

Download files

Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.

Files for typical, version 2.0.0b10
Filename, size File type Python version Upload date Hashes
Filename, size typical-2.0.0b10-py3-none-any.whl (67.0 kB) File type Wheel Python version py3 Upload date Hashes View
Filename, size typical-2.0.0b10.tar.gz (54.4 kB) File type Source Python version None Upload date Hashes View

Supported by

Pingdom Pingdom Monitoring Google Google Object Storage and Download Analytics Sentry Sentry Error logging AWS AWS Cloud computing DataDog DataDog Monitoring Fastly Fastly CDN DigiCert DigiCert EV certificate StatusPage StatusPage Status page