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Declare & parse types / dataclasses / functions based on Python type annotations

Project description


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utype is a data types declaration & parsing library based on Python type annotations, enforce types and constraints for classes and functions at runtime

Core Features

  • Enforce types, data classes, function params and result parsing at runtime based on Python type annotation
  • Support a variety of constraints, logical operators and flexible parsing options
  • Highly extensible, all type transformer can be register, extend and override


pip install -U utype

utype requires Python >= 3.7

Usage Example

Types and constraints

The utype support to add constraints on types, such as

from utype import Rule, exc

class PositiveInt(int, Rule):  
    gt = 0

assert PositiveInt(b'3') == 3

except exc.ParseError as e:
    Constraint: 0 violated

Data that conforms to the type and constraints will complete the conversion, otherwise will throw a parse error indicating what went wrong

Parsing dataclasses

utype supports the "dataclass" usage that convert a dict or JSON to a class instance, similar to pydantic and attrs

from utype import Schema, Field, exc
from datetime import datetime

class UserSchema(Schema):
    username: str = Field(regex='[0-9a-zA-Z]{3,20}')
    signup_time: datetime

# 1. Valid input
data = {'username': 'bob', 'signup_time': '2022-10-11 10:11:12'}
#> UserSchema(username='bob', signup_time=datetime.datetime(2022, 10, 11, 10, 11, 12))

# 2. Invalid input
    UserSchema(username='@invalid', signup_time='2022-10-11 10:11:12')
except exc.ParseError as e:
    parse item: ['username'] failed: 
    Constraint: <regex>: '[0-9a-zA-Z]{3,20}' violated

After a simple declaration, you can get

  • Automatic __init__ to take input data, perform validation and attribute assignment
  • Providing __repr__ and __str__ to get the clearly print output of the instance
  • parse and protect attribute assignment and deletion to avoid dirty data

Parsing functions

utype can also parse function params and result

import utype
from typing import Optional

class PositiveInt(int, utype.Rule):  
    gt = 0

class ArticleSchema(utype.Schema):
    id: Optional[PositiveInt]
    title: str = utype.Field(max_length=100)
    slug: str = utype.Field(regex=r"[a-z0-9]+(?:-[a-z0-9]+)*")

def get_article(id: PositiveInt = None, title: str = '') -> ArticleSchema:
    return {
        'id': id,
        'title': title,
        'slug': '-'.join([''.join(
            filter(str.isalnum, v)) for v in title.split()]).lower()

print(get_article('3', title=b'My Awesome Article!'))
#> ArticleSchema(id=3, title='My Awesome Article!', slug='my-awesome-article')

except utype.exc.ParseError as e:
    parse item: ['id'] failed: Constraint: : 0 violated

    get_article(title='*' * 101)
except utype.exc.ParseError as e:
    parse item: ['<return>'] failed: 
    parse item: ['title'] failed: 
    Constraint: <max_length>: 100 violated

You can easily get type checking and code completion of IDEs (such as Pycharm, VS Code) during development

utype supports not only normal functions, but also generator functions, asynchronous functions, and asynchronous generator functions with the same usage

import utype  
import asyncio  
from typing import AsyncGenerator  

async def waiter(rounds: int = utype.Param(gt=0)) -> AsyncGenerator[int, float]:  
    assert isinstance(rounds, int)  
    i = rounds  
    while i:  
        wait = yield str(i)  
        if wait:  
            assert isinstance(wait, float)  
            print(f'sleep for: {wait} seconds')
            await asyncio.sleep(wait)  
        i -= 1  
async def wait():  
    wait_gen = waiter('2')  
    async for index in wait_gen:  
        assert isinstance(index, int)  
            await wait_gen.asend(b'0.5')  
            # sleep for: 0.5 seconds  
        except StopAsyncIteration:  
if __name__ == '__main__':

The AsyncGenerator type is used to annotate the return value of the asynchronous generator, which has two parameters: the type of the value output by yield, type of the value sent by asend

As you can see, the parameters passed to the function and the value received from yield were all converted to the expected type as declared

Logical operation of type

utype supports logical operations on types and data structures using Python-native logical operators

from utype import Schema, Field
from typing import Tuple

class User(Schema):  
    name: str = Field(max_length=10)  
    age: int

one_of_user = User ^ Tuple[str, int]

print(one_of_user({'name': 'test', 'age': '1'}))
# > User(name='test', age=1)

print(one_of_user([b'test', '1']))
# > ('test', 1)

The example uses the ^ exclusive or symbol to logically combine User and Tuple[str, int], and the new logical type gains the ability to convert data to one of those

Register transformer for type

Type transformation and validation strictness required by each project may be different, so in utype, all types support registraton, extension and override, such as

from utype import Rule, Schema, register_transformer
from typing import Type

class Slug(str, Rule):  
    regex = r"[a-z0-9]+(?:-[a-z0-9]+)*"

def to_slug(transformer, value, t: Type[Slug]):
    str_value = transformer(value, str)
    return t('-'.join([''.join(
    filter(str.isalnum, v)) for v in str_value.split()]).lower())

class ArticleSchema(Schema):
	slug: Slug

print(dict(ArticleSchema(slug=b'My Awesome Article!')))
# > {'slug': 'my-awesome-article'}

You can register transformers not only for custom types, but also for basic types (such as str, int, etc.) Or types in the standard library (such as datetime, Enum, etc.) To customize the conversion behavior

RoadMap and Contribution

utype is still growing, and the following features are planned for implementation in the new version

  • Improve the handling mechanism of parsing errors, including error handling hook functions, etc.
  • Support the declaration and parse command line parameters
  • Support for Python generics, type variables, and more type annotation syntax
  • Develop Pycharm/VS Code plugin that supports IDE detection and hints for constraints, logical types, and nested types

You are also welcome to contribute features or submit issues.


UtilMeta Python Framework

UtilMeta Python Framework is a progressive meta-framework for backend applications, which efficiently builds declarative APIs based on the Python type annotation standard, and supports the integration of mainstream Python frameworks as runtime backend


utype is a project of UtilMeta, so you can join the community in

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