Concurrently detect the minimum Python versions needed to run code
Concurrently detect the minimum Python versions needed to run code. Additionally, since the code is vanilla Python, and it doesn’t have any external dependencies, it works with v2.7+ and v3+.
It functions by parsing Python code into an abstract syntax tree (AST), which it traverses and matches against internal dictionaries with 1000 rules divided into 124 modules, 668 classes/functions/constants members of modules, 179 kwargs of functions, 4 strftime directives, 2 array typecodes, 3 codecs error handler names, and 20 codecs encodings. Including looking for v2/v3 print expr and print(expr), long, f-strings, coroutines (async and await), boolean constants, "..".format(..), imports (import X, from X import Y, from X import *), function calls wrt. name and kwargs, strftime + strptime directives used, and function, function and variable annotations, array typecodes, codecs error handler names and encodings. It tries to detect and ignore user-defined functions, classes, arguments, and variables with names that clash with library-defined symbols.
It is fairly straightforward to use Vermin:
Or via PyPi:
% pip install vermin % vermin /path/to/your/project
When using continuous integration (CI) tools, like Travis CI, Vermin can be used to check that the minimum required versions didn’t change. The following is an exerpt:
install: - ./setup_virtual_env.sh - pip install vermin script: - vermin -t=2.7 -t=3 project_package otherfile.py
% ./vermin.py Vermin 0.6.2 Usage: ./vermin.py [options] <python source files and folders..> Options: -q Quite mode. It only prints the final versions verdict. -v.. Verbosity level 1 to 3. -v, -vv, and -vvv shows increasingly more information. -v will show the individual versions required per file. -vv will also show which modules, functions etc. that constitutes the requirements. -vvv will also show line/col numbers. -t=V Target version that files must abide by. Can be specified once or twice. If not met Vermin will exit with code 1. -p=N Use N concurrent processes to analyze files (defaults to all cores = 8). -i Ignore incompatible version warnings. -l Lax mode: ignores conditionals (if, ternary, for, while, try, bool op) on AST traversal, which can be useful when minimum versions are detected in conditionals that it is known does not affect the results. -d Dump AST node visits. --hidden Analyze 'hidden' files and folders starting with '.' (ignored by default). % ./vermin.py -q vermin Minimum required versions: 2.7, 3.0 % ./vermin.py -q -t=3.3 vermin Minimum required versions: 2.7, 3.0 Target versions not met: 3.3 % echo $? 1 % ./vermin.py -v examples Detecting python files.. Analyzing 6 files using 8 processes.. /path/to/examples/formatv2.py 2.7, 3.2 /path/to/examples/argparse.py 2.7, 3.0 /path/to/examples/formatv3.py 2.0, 3.0 /path/to/examples/printv3.py !2, 3.4 /path/to/examples/abc.py /path/to/examples/unknown.py Minimum required versions: 3.4 Incompatible versions: 2 % ./vermin.py -vv /path/to/examples/abc.py Detecting python files.. Analyzing using 8 processes.. !2, 3.4 /path/to/examples/abc.py 'abc' requires (2.6, 3.0) 'abc.ABC' requires (None, 3.4) Minimum required versions: 3.4 Incompatible versions: 2 % ./vermin.py -vvv /path/to/examples/abc.py Detecting python files.. Analyzing using 8 processes.. !2, 3.4 /path/to/examples/abc.py L1 C7: 'abc' requires (2.6, 3.0) L2: 'abc.ABC' requires (None, 3.4) Minimum required versions: 3.4 Incompatible versions: 2
Vermin parses Python source code into abstract syntax trees (ASTs) which it traverses to do analysis. However, it doesn’t do conditional logic, i.e. deciding which branches will be taken at runtime, since it can cause unexpected side-effects to actually evaluate code. As an example, analysis of the following:
if False: print(f"..but I won't be evaluated")
Will yield “f-strings require 3.6+” even though the branch will not be evaluated at runtime.
The lax mode, via argument -l, was created to circumvent cases like this. But it’s not a perfect solution since it will skip all if, ternarys, for, while, try, and boolean operations. Therefore it is recommended to run with and without lax mode to get a better understanding of individual cases.
Contributions are very welcome, especially adding and updating detection rules of modules, functions, classes etc. to cover as many Python versions as possible. For PRs, make sure to keep the code vanilla Python and run make test first. Note that code must be remain valid and working on Python v2.7+ and v3+.
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