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Project Description

wampy

WAMP RPC and Pub/Sub for your Python apps and microservices

This is a Python implementation of WAMP not requiring Twisted or asyncio, enabling use within classic blocking Python applications. It is a light-weight alternative to autobahn.

With wampy you can quickly and easily create your own WAMP clients, whether this is in a web app, a microservice, a script or just in a Python shell.

wampy tries to provide an intuitive API for your WAMP messaging.

WAMP

The WAMP Protocol is a powerful tool for your web applications and microservices - else just for your free time, fun and games!

WAMP facilitates communication between independent applications over a common “router”. An actor in this process is called a Peer, and a Peer is either a Client or the Router.

WAMP messaging occurs between Clients over the Router via Remote Procedure Call (RPC) or the Publish/Subscribe pattern. As long as your Client knows how to connect to a Router it does not then need to know anything further about other connected Peers beyond a shared string name for an endpoint or Topic, i.e. it does not care where another Client application is, how many of them there might be, how they might be written or how to identify them. This is more simple than other messaging protocols, such as AMQP for example, where you also need to consider exchanges and queues in order to explicitly connect to other actors from your applications.

WAMP is most commonly a WebSocket subprotocol (runs on top of WebSocket) that uses JSON as message serialization format. However, the protocol can also run with MsgPack as serialization, run over raw TCP or in fact any message based, bidirectional, reliable transport - but wampy (currently) runs over websockets only.

For further reading please see some of the popular blog posts on WAMP such as http://tavendo.com/blog/post/is-crossbar-the-future-of-python-web-apps/.

Quickstart: wampy from the command line

Before any messaging can happen you do need that Router I mentioned. Messages are then routed between Clients over an administrative domain on the Router called a Realm.

For the quickest of starts I suggest that you use Crossbar.io and start it up on the default host and port, and with the default realm and roles. See the Crossbar.io docs for the instructions on this or alternatively run with wampy’s testing setup.

$ pip install --editable .[dev]

$ crossbar start --config ./wampy/testing/configs/crossbar.config.ipv4.json

By default a wampy client connects to localhost on port 8080, but this is of course configurable, and is done so on client initialisation.

The wampy Client

wampy was originally written to provide a simple client to send a WAMP message.

When a wampy client starts up it will send the HELLO message for you and begin a Session. Once you have the Session you can construct and send a WAMP message yourself, if you so choose. But wampy has the publish and rpc APIs so you don’t have to.

But if you did want to do it yourself, here’s an example how to…

Given a Crossbar.io server running on localhost on port 8080, a realm of “realm1”, and a remote procedure “foobar”, send a CALL message with wampy as follows:

In [1]: from wampy.peers.clients import Client

In [2]: from wampy.peers.routers import Crossbar

In [3]: from wampy.messages.call import Call

In [4]: router = Crossbar(config_path="./crossbar/config.json")

In [5]: client = Client(router=router)

In [6]: message = Call(procedure="foobar", args=(), kwargs={})

In [7]: with client:
            client.send_message(message)

This is quite verbose an unnecessary with the core wampy API. With wampy you don’t actually have to manually craft any messages. And of course, without another Peer having registered “foobar” on the same realm, this example will achieve little. And even if there were, you’d still have to do work to receive, unpack and interpret the response.

Note that in the example, as you leave the context managed function call, the client will send a GOODBYE message and your Session will end. And that ./crossbar/config.json is the default value for config_path.

The above can essentially be replaced with:

In [X]: respones = client.rpc.foobar(*args, **kwargs)

Under the hood, wampy has the RpcProxy object that implements the rpc API.

wampy RPC

Now open your preferred text editor and we’ll write a few lines of Python constructing a simple WAMP service that takes a decimal number and returns the binary representation of it - wowzers!

In [1]: from wampy.peers.clients import Client

In [2]: from wampy.roles import callee

In [3]: class BinaryNumberService(Client):

            @callee
            def get_binary_number(self, number):
                return bin(number)

Save this module somewhere on your Python path and we’ll use a wampy command line interface tool to start the service.

$ wampy run path.to.your.module.including.module_name:BinaryNumberService

For example, running one of the wampy example applications.

$ wampy run docs.examples.services:DateService --config './path/to/crossbar.config.json'

Okay, no need to write any code: execute this:

$ wampy run docs.examples.services:BinaryNumberService --config './wampy/testing/configs/crossbar.config.ipv4.json'

Now, open a Python console in a new terminal, allowing the BinaryNumberService to run uninterupted in your original terminal (but once you’re done with it Ctrl-C is required).

In [1]: from wampy.peers.clients import Client

In [2]: from wampy.peers.routers import Crossbar

In [3]: with Client(router=Crossbar()) as client:
            result = client.rpc.get_binary_number(number=100)

In [4]: result
Out[4]: u'0b1100100'

wampy RPC for Crossbar.io

The RPC pattern above was inspired by the nameko project, but this pattern may not feel intuitive for those familiar with Crossbar.io, the primary Router used by wampy.

For this reason there also exists the CallProxy object which implements the call API by more loosely wrapping wampy’s Call Message. In this pattern, applications and their endpoints are identified by dot delimented strings rather than a single API name, e.g.

"com.example.endpoint"

Just like the rpc API, the call API is directly available on every wampy client. Lets look at the two examples side by side.

>>> client.rpc.get_foo_bar(eggs, foo=bar, spam=ham)
>>> client.call("get_foo_bar", eggs, foo=bar, spam=ham)

Noted these are very similar and achieve the same, but the intention here is for the call API to behave more like a classic Crossbar.io application and the rpc to be used in nameko_wamp.

The call API however does allow calls of the form…

>>> client.call("com.myapp.foo.bar", eggs, foo=bar, spam=ham)

…which you will not be able to do with the rpc API.

Publishing and Subscribing is equally as simple

To demonstrate, first of all you need a Subscriber. You can either create one yourself in a Python module (as a subclass of a wampy Client) or use the example Client already for you in docs.examples.services.

Here we use the said example service, but all a Subscriber is is a wampy Client with a method decorated by subscribe. Take a look and see for yourself in the examples.

Let’s start up that example service.

$ wampy run docs.examples.services:SubscribingService --config './wampy/testing/configs/crossbar.config.ipv4.json'

Now we have a service running that subscribes to the topic “foo”.

In another terminal, with a wampy virtualenv, you can create a Publisher - which is no different to any other wampy Client.

In [1]: from wampy.peers.clients import Client

In [2]: from wampy.peers.routers import Crossbar

In [3]: with Client(router=Crossbar()) as client:
            result = client.publish(topic="foo", message="spam")

Hopefully you’ll see any message you send printed to the screen where the example service is running. You’ll also see the meta data that wampy chooses to send.

TLS/wss Support

When you instantiate your Router, pass in a path to the server certificate along with the host and port that it operates on, e.g.

In [1]: from wampy.peers.clients import Client

In [2]: from wampy.peers.routers import Crossbar

In [3]: router = Crossbar(certificate="path.to.certificate")

Your Router must be configured to use TLS. For an example see the config used by the test runner along with the TLS Router setup.

To connect a Client over TLS pass the use_tls=True parameter on initialisation.

In [4]: client = Client(router=router, use_tls=True)

Note that Crossbar.io does not support TLS over IPV6 and you’ll need to be executing as root for port 443. All of these choices are made in the Crossbar.io config.

Testing

wampy provides some pytest fixtures and helpers for you to run a crossbar server. These are router and session_maker.

The router is Crossbar.io and will be started and shutdown between each test. It has a default configuration which you can override in your tests by creating a config_path fixture in your own conftest - see wampy’s conftest for an example. If you require even more control you can import the router itself from wampy.peers.routers and setup your tests however you need to.

To help you setup your test there are also some helpers that you can execute to wait for async certain actions to perform before you start actually running test code. These are:

# execute with the client you're waiting for as the only argument
from wampy.testing import wait_for_session
# e.g. ```wait_for_session(client)```

# wait for a specific number of registrations on a client
from wampy.testing import wait_for_registrations
# e.g. ``wait_for_registrations(client, number_of_registrations=5)

# wait for a specific number of subscriptions on a client
from wampy.testing import wait_for_subscriptions
# e.g. ``wait_for_subscriptions(client, number_of_subscriptions=7)

# provied a function that raises until the test passes
from test.helpers import assert_stops_raising
# e.g. assert_stops_raising(my_func_that_raises_until_condition_met)

Running the tests

$ pip install --editable .[dev]
$ py.test ./test -v

Build the docs

$ pip install -r docs_requirements.txt
$ sphinx-build -E -b html ./docs/ ./docs/_build/

If you like this project, then Thank You, and you’re welcome to get involved.

Release History

Release History

0.9.3

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0.7.1

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0.7.0

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0.6.0

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0.5.0

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0.4.1

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0.4.0

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0.3.0

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0.2.0

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0.1.2

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0.1.1

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Download Files

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File Name & Checksum SHA256 Checksum Help Version File Type Upload Date
wampy-0.9.3-py2.py3-none-any.whl (52.0 kB) Copy SHA256 Checksum SHA256 py2.py3 Wheel Apr 23, 2017

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